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Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental mechanism regulating nearly every aspect of cellular life. Several secreted proteins are phosphorylated, but the kinases responsible are unknown. We identified a family of atypical protein kinases that localize within the Golgi apparatus and are secreted. Fam20C appears to be the Golgi casein kinase that(More)
The MVB pathway plays essential roles in several eukaryotic cellular processes. Proper function of the MVB pathway requires reversible membrane association of the ESCRTs, a process catalyzed by Vps4 ATPase. Vta1 regulates the Vps4 activity, but its mechanism of action was poorly understood. We report the high-resolution crystal structures of the Did2- and(More)
The AAA-ATPase Vps4 is critical for function of the MVB sorting pathway, which in turn impacts cellular phenomena ranging from receptor downregulation to viral budding to cytokinesis. Vps4 dissociates ESCRTs from endosomal membranes during MVB sorting, but it is unclear how Vps4 ATPase activity is synchronized with ESCRT release. Vta1 potentiates Vps4(More)
The exocyst complex tethers vesicles at sites of fusion through interactions with small GTPases. The G protein RalA resides on Glut4 vesicles, and binds to the exocyst after activation by insulin, but must then disengage to ensure continuous exocytosis. Here we report that, after recognition of the exocyst by activated RalA, disengagement occurs through(More)
The Fic family of adenylyltransferases, defined by a core HPFx(D/E)GN(G/K)R motif, consists of over 2,700 proteins found in organisms from bacteria to humans. The immunoglobulin-binding protein A (IbpA) from the bacterial pathogen Histophilus somni contains two Fic domains that adenylylate the switch1 tyrosine residue of Rho-family GTPases, allowing the(More)
The ESCRT machinery functions in several important eukaryotic cellular processes. The AAA-ATPase Vps4 catalyzes disassembly of the ESCRT-III complex and may regulate membrane deformation and vesicle scission as well. Ist1 was proposed to be a regulator of Vps4, but its mechanism of action was unclear. The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Ist1(More)
The multivesicular body (MVB) pathway functions in multiple cellular processes including cell surface receptor down-regulation and viral budding from host cells. An important step in the MVB pathway is the correct sorting of cargo molecules, which requires the assembly and disassembly of endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) on the(More)
Protein degradation by the 26S proteasome is a fundamental process involved in a broad range of cellular activities, yet how proteasome activity is regulated remains poorly understood. We report here that ubiquitin-like domain-containing C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (UBLCP1) is a 26S proteasome phosphatase that regulates nuclear proteasome activity.(More)
The family with sequence similarity 20, member C (Fam20C) has recently been identified as the Golgi casein kinase. Fam20C phosphorylates secreted proteins on Ser-x-Glu/pSer motifs and loss-of-function mutations in the kinase cause Raine syndrome, an often-fatal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia. Fam20C is potentially an upstream regulator of the(More)
The existence of extracellular phosphoproteins has been acknowledged for over a century. However, research in this area has been undeveloped largely because the kinases that phosphorylate secreted proteins have escaped identification. Fam20C is a kinase that phosphorylates S-x-E/pS motifs on proteins in milk and in the extracellular matrix of bones and(More)