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BACKGROUND The volume overload of isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) in the dog results in left ventricular (LV) dilatation and interstitial collagen loss. To better understand the mechanism of collagen loss, we performed a gene array and overlaid regulated genes into ingenuity pathway analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS Gene arrays from LV tissue were compared(More)
Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is increased in the left ventricle (LV) of humans with volume overload (VO), and mitochondrial inhibition of the respiratory chain occurs in animal models of VO. Because mitochondria are both a source and a target of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, we hypothesized that activation of XOR and mitochondrial dysfunction are(More)
Left ventricular (LV) volume overload (VO) causes eccentric remodeling with inflammatory cell infiltration and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, for which there is currently no proven therapy. To uncover new pathways that connect inflammation and ECM homeostasis with cellular dysfunction, we determined the cardiac transciptome in subacute,(More)
BACKGROUND The intestinal mucosa is the compartment that sustains the most severe injury in response to radiation and is therefore of primary interest. The use of whole gut extracts for analysis of gene expression may confound important changes in the mucosa. On the other hand, laser capture microdissection (LCM) is hampered by the unstable nature of RNA(More)
The low-pressure volume overload of isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with increased adrenergic drive, left ventricular (LV) dilatation, and loss of interstitial collagen. We tested the hypothesis that beta1-adrenergic receptor blockade (beta1-RB) would attenuate LV remodeling after 4 mo of MR in the dog. beta1-RB did not attenuate collagen(More)
BACKGROUND Mast cells and neuroimmune interactions regulate the severity of intestinal radiation mucositis, a dose-limiting toxicity during radiation therapy of abdominal malignancies. AIM Because endocannabinoids (eCB) regulate intestinal inflammation, we investigated the effect of the cannabimimetic, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in a mast competent(More)
Volume overload (VO) caused by aortocaval fistula (ACF) is associated with oxidative/inflammatory stress. The resulting inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation, and collagen degradation is thought to play a pivotal role in left ventricular (LV) dilatation and failure. Since mitochondria are also targets for inflammation and oxidative stress,(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of CD4(-) cells has been demonstrated, and this may be an important mechanism for HIV transmission. RESULTS We demonstrated that a membrane protein, claudin-7 (CLDN-7), is involved in HIV infection of CD4(-) cells. A significant increase in HIV susceptibility (2- to 100-fold) was demonstrated when(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical problem of a "pure volume overload" as in isolated mitral or aortic regurgitation currently has no documented medical therapy that attenuates collagen loss and the resultant left ventricular (LV) dilatation and failure. Here, we identify a potential mechanism related to upregulation of the kallikrein-kinin system in the volume(More)
Acute stretch caused by volume overload (VO) of aorto-caval fistula (ACF) induces a variety of myocardial responses including mast cell accumulation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation, and collagen degradation, all of which are critical in dictating long-term left ventricle (LV) outcome to VO. Meanwhile, these responses can be part of myocardial(More)