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Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows trans-acting factors present in the mammalian oocyte to reprogram somatic cell nuclei to an undifferentiated state. We show that four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28) are sufficient to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells that exhibit the essential characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells.(More)
Reprogramming differentiated human cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has applications in basic biology, drug development, and transplantation. Human iPS cell derivation previously required vectors that integrate into the genome, which can create mutations and limit the utility of the cells in both research and clinical applications. We describe(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy is one of the most common inherited forms of neurological disease leading to infant mortality. Patients have selective loss of lower motor neurons resulting in muscle weakness, paralysis and often death. Although patient fibroblasts have been used extensively to study spinal muscular atrophy, motor neurons have a unique anatomy and(More)
For the promise of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to be realized, it is necessary to ask if and how efficiently they may be differentiated to functional cells of various lineages. Here, we have directly compared the neural-differentiation capacity of human iPSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We have shown that human iPSCs use the same(More)
Defined transcription factors can induce epigenetic reprogramming of adult mammalian cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Although DNA factors are integrated during some reprogramming methods, it is unknown whether the genome remains unchanged at the single nucleotide level. Here we show that 22 human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell lines(More)
Here, we show that as human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) exit the pluripotent state, NANOG can play a key role in determining lineage outcome. It has previously been reported that BMPs induce differentiation of human ESCs into extraembryonic lineages. Here, we find that FGF2, acting through the MEK-ERK pathway, switches BMP4-induced human ESC differentiation(More)
RATIONALE Cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are increasingly being used for cardiovascular research, including disease modeling, and hold promise for clinical applications. Current cardiac differentiation protocols exhibit variable success across different PSC lines and are primarily based on the application of(More)
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide an unprecedented opportunity for modeling of human diseases in vitro, as well as for developing novel approaches for regenerative therapy based on immunologically compatible cells. In this study, we employed an OP9 differentiation system to characterize the hematopoietic and endothelial differentiation(More)
Self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is promoted by FGF and TGFbeta/Activin signaling, and differentiation is promoted by BMP signaling, but how these signals regulate genes critical to the maintenance of pluripotency has been unclear. Using a defined medium, we show here that both TGFbeta and FGF signals synergize to inhibit BMP signaling;(More)