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DNA double-strand breaks represent the most potentially serious damage to a genome; hence, many repair proteins are recruited to nuclear damage sites by as yet poorly characterized sensor mechanisms. Here, we show that NBS1, the gene product defective in Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), physically interacts with histone, rather than damaged DNA, by direct(More)
Double-strand breaks occur during DNA replication and are also induced by ionizing radiation. There are at least two pathways which can repair such breaks: non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination (HR). Although these pathways are essentially independent of one another, it is possible that the proteins Mre11, Rad50 and Xrs2 are involved in(More)
The tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) are widely used for assessing antidepressant activity and depression-like behavior. We found that CS mice show negligible immobility in inescapable situations. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using CS and C57BL/6J mice revealed significant QTLs on chromosomes 4 (FST) and 5 (TST and FST).(More)
TAL Effector Nucleases (TALENs) are versatile tools for targeted gene editing in various species. However, their efficiency is still insufficient, especially in mammalian embryos. Here, we showed that combined expression of Exonuclease 1 (Exo1) with engineered site-specific TALENs provided highly efficient disruption of the endogenous gene in rat fibroblast(More)
H2AX is an important factor for chromatin remodeling to facilitate accumulation of DNA damage-related proteins at DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites. In order to further understand the role of H2AX in the DNA damage response (DDR), we attempted to identify H2AX-interacting proteins by proteomics analysis. As a result, we identified nucleolin as one of(More)
Although RAD52 plays a critical role in the initiation of homologous recombination (HR) by facilitating the replacement of RPA with RAD51, the mechanism controlling RAD52 remains elusive. Here, we show that Bag101, a factor implicated in proteasome functioning, regulates RAD52 protein levels and subsequent HR. LC-MS/MS analysis identified Bag101 which binds(More)
BACKGROUND MRE11 is an important nuclease which functions in the end-resection step of homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). As MRE11-deficient ATLD cells exhibit hyper radio-sensitivity and impaired DSB repair, MRE11 inhibitors could possibly function as potent radio-sensitizers. Therefore, we investigated whether a(More)
is phosphorylated and forms discrete foci immediately (within 5 min) after irradiation [5]; hence, it may represent an earlier signaling response than formation of the complex within 2 hr of irradiation, as detected by anti-hMRE11 antibody (Figure 2A). In the absence of NBS1, 5 Medical and Biological Laboratories Nagano 396-0002 hMRE11 protein was confined(More)
Homologous recombination plays a key role in the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs), and thereby significantly contributes to cellular tolerance to radiotherapy and some chemotherapy. DSB repair by homologous recombination is initiated by 5' to 3' strand resection (DSB resection), with nucleases generating the 3' single-strand DNA (3'ssDNA) at DSB sites.(More)
Werner syndrome (WS), caused by mutation of the WRN gene, is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with premature aging and predisposition to cancer. WRN belongs to the RecQ DNA helicase family, members of which play a role in maintaining genomic stability. Here, we demonstrate that WRN rapidly forms discrete nuclear foci in an NBS1-dependent manner(More)