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DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), consisting of Ku and DNA-PKcs subunits, is the key component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Although the kinase activity of DNA-PKcs is essential for NHEJ, thus far, no in vivo substrate has been conclusively identified except for an autophosphorylation site on(More)
DNA double-strand breaks represent the most potentially serious damage to a genome; hence, many repair proteins are recruited to nuclear damage sites by as yet poorly characterized sensor mechanisms. Here, we show that NBS1, the gene product defective in Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), physically interacts with histone, rather than damaged DNA, by direct(More)
Double-strand breaks occur during DNA replication and are also induced by ionizing radiation. There are at least two pathways which can repair such breaks: non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination (HR). Although these pathways are essentially independent of one another, it is possible that the proteins Mre11, Rad50 and Xrs2 are involved in(More)
The tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) are widely used for assessing antidepressant activity and depression-like behavior. We found that CS mice show negligible immobility in inescapable situations. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using CS and C57BL/6J mice revealed significant QTLs on chromosomes 4 (FST) and 5 (TST and FST).(More)
TAL Effector Nucleases (TALENs) are versatile tools for targeted gene editing in various species. However, their efficiency is still insufficient, especially in mammalian embryos. Here, we showed that combined expression of Exonuclease 1 (Exo1) with engineered site-specific TALENs provided highly efficient disruption of the endogenous gene in rat fibroblast(More)
H2AX is an important factor for chromatin remodeling to facilitate accumulation of DNA damage-related proteins at DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites. In order to further understand the role of H2AX in the DNA damage response (DDR), we attempted to identify H2AX-interacting proteins by proteomics analysis. As a result, we identified nucleolin as one of(More)
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, the most widely used animal model of DNA-PKcs (Prkdc) deficiency, have contributed enormously to our understanding of immunodeficiency, lymphocyte development, and DNA-repair mechanisms, and they are ideal hosts for allogeneic and xenogeneic tissue transplantation. Here, we use zinc-finger nucleases to generate(More)
BACKGROUND MRE11 is an important nuclease which functions in the end-resection step of homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). As MRE11-deficient ATLD cells exhibit hyper radio-sensitivity and impaired DSB repair, MRE11 inhibitors could possibly function as potent radio-sensitizers. Therefore, we investigated whether a(More)
is phosphorylated and forms discrete foci immediately (within 5 min) after irradiation [5]; hence, it may represent an earlier signaling response than formation of the complex within 2 hr of irradiation, as detected by anti-hMRE11 antibody (Figure 2A). In the absence of NBS1, 5 Medical and Biological Laboratories Nagano 396-0002 hMRE11 protein was confined(More)
Nijmegen breakage syndrome is characterized by genomic instability and a predisposition for lymphoma and solid tumors. Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1), the protein which is mutated in these patients, functions in association with BRCA1 and ATR as part of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. We show here that NBS1 forms foci at the(More)