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The E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF20 regulates chromatin structure by monoubiquitinating histone H2B in transcription. Here, we show that RNF20 is localized to double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) independently of H2AX and is required for the DSB-induced H2B ubiquitination. In addition, RNF20 is required for the methylation of H3K4 at DSBs and the recruitment of the(More)
The E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF20 regulates chromatin structure through ubiquitylation of histone H2B, so that early homologous recombination repair (HRR) proteins can access the DNA in eukaryotes during repair. However, it remains unresolved how RNF20 itself approaches the DNA in the presence of chromatin structure. Here, we identified the histone chaperone(More)
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), consisting of Ku and DNA-PKcs subunits, is the key component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Although the kinase activity of DNA-PKcs is essential for NHEJ, thus far, no in vivo substrate has been conclusively identified except for an autophosphorylation site on(More)
Nijmegen breakage syndrome is a recessive genetic disorder, characterized by elevated sensitivity to ionizing radiation, chromosome instability and high frequency of malignancies. Since cellular features partly overlap with those of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), NBS was long considered an A-T clinical variant. NBS1, the product of the gene underlying the(More)
DNA double-strand breaks represent the most potentially serious damage to a genome; hence, many repair proteins are recruited to nuclear damage sites by as yet poorly characterized sensor mechanisms. Here, we show that NBS1, the gene product defective in Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), physically interacts with histone, rather than damaged DNA, by direct(More)
The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is rapidly phosphorylated at the Thr-2609 cluster and Ser-2056 upon ionizing radiation (IR). Furthermore, DNA-PKcs phosphorylation at both regions is critical for its role in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair as well as cellular resistance to radiation. IR-induced DNA-PKcs phosphorylation(More)
The phosphorylation of histone H2AX at serine 139 is one of the earliest responses of mammalian cells to ionizing radiation-induced DNA breaks. DNA breaks are also generated during the terminal stages of apoptosis when chromosomal DNA is cleaved into oligonucleosomal pieces. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation and the consequent chromatin condensation are important(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to describe the imaging findings for intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas. METHODS Eleven pancreatic tumors pathologically confirmed as intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm were retrospectively collected. The dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging(More)
Arabidopsis SOG1 (suppressor of gamma response 1) is a plant-specific transcription factor that governs the DNA damage response. Here we report that SOG1 is phosphorylated in response to DNA damage, and that this phosphorylation is mediated by the sensor kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We show that SOG1 phosphorylation is crucial for the(More)
Double-strand breaks occur during DNA replication and are also induced by ionizing radiation. There are at least two pathways which can repair such breaks: non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination (HR). Although these pathways are essentially independent of one another, it is possible that the proteins Mre11, Rad50 and Xrs2 are involved in(More)