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The E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF20 regulates chromatin structure by monoubiquitinating histone H2B in transcription. Here, we show that RNF20 is localized to double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) independently of H2AX and is required for the DSB-induced H2B ubiquitination. In addition, RNF20 is required for the methylation of H3K4 at DSBs and the recruitment of the(More)
The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is rapidly phosphorylated at the Thr-2609 cluster and Ser-2056 upon ionizing radiation (IR). Furthermore, DNA-PKcs phosphorylation at both regions is critical for its role in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair as well as cellular resistance to radiation. IR-induced DNA-PKcs phosphorylation(More)
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), consisting of Ku and DNA-PKcs subunits, is the key component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Although the kinase activity of DNA-PKcs is essential for NHEJ, thus far, no in vivo substrate has been conclusively identified except for an autophosphorylation site on(More)
DNA double-strand breaks represent the most potentially serious damage to a genome; hence, many repair proteins are recruited to nuclear damage sites by as yet poorly characterized sensor mechanisms. Here, we show that NBS1, the gene product defective in Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), physically interacts with histone, rather than damaged DNA, by direct(More)
Cancer-prone syndrome of premature chromatid separation (PCS syndrome) with mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, microcephaly, childhood cancer, premature chromatid separation of all chromosomes, and mosaicism for various trisomies and monosomies. Biallelic BUB1B mutations were(More)
The phosphorylation of histone H2AX at serine 139 is one of the earliest responses of mammalian cells to ionizing radiation-induced DNA breaks. DNA breaks are also generated during the terminal stages of apoptosis when chromosomal DNA is cleaved into oligonucleosomal pieces. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation and the consequent chromatin condensation are important(More)
The E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF20 regulates chromatin structure through ubiquitylation of histone H2B, so that early homologous recombination repair (HRR) proteins can access the DNA in eukaryotes during repair. However, it remains unresolved how RNF20 itself approaches the DNA in the presence of chromatin structure. Here, we identified the histone chaperone(More)
DNA double strand break (DSB) is one of the most critical types of damage which is induced by ionizing radiation. In this review, we summarize current progress in investigations on the function of DSB repair-related proteins. We focused on recent findings in the analysis of the function of proteins such as 53BP1, histone H2AX, Mus81-Eme1, Fanc complex, and(More)
Nijmegen breakage syndrome is a recessive genetic disorder, characterized by elevated sensitivity to ionizing radiation, chromosome instability and high frequency of malignancies. Since cellular features partly overlap with those of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), NBS was long considered an A-T clinical variant. NBS1, the product of the gene underlying the(More)
The isolation of the NBS1 gene revealed the molecular mechanisms of DSB repair. In response to DNA damage, histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs is phosphorylated by ATM. NBS1 then targets the MRE11/RAD50 complex to the sites of DSBs through interaction of the FHA/BRCT domain with gamma-H2AX. NBS1 complex binds to damaged-DNA directly, and HR repair is(More)