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T cells slow their motility, increase adherence, and arrest after encounters with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) bearing peptide-MHC complexes. Here, we analyzed the cell-cell communication among activating T cells. In vivo and in vitro, activating T cells associated in large clusters that collectively persisted for >30 min, but they also engaged in more(More)
PD-1 is a well-established negative regulator of T cell responses by inhibiting proliferation and cytokine production of T cells via interaction with its ligands, B7-H1 (PD-L1) and B7-DC (PD-L2), expressed on non-T cells. Recently, PD-1 was found to be expressed in innate cells, including activated DCs, and plays roles in suppressing production of(More)
Bioprinting is a promising technique for engineering composite tissues, such as osteochondral tissues. In this study, as a first step toward bioprinting-based osteochondral tissue regeneration, we systematically examined the behavior of chondrocytes and osteoblasts to hyaluronic acid (HA) and type I collagen (Col-1) hydrogels. First, we demonstrated that(More)
Micro/nanofabricated surfaces have been widely used for the study of topography-guided migration of cells. While the current studies mostly utilized micro/nanostructures containing sharp edges, internal tissues guiding migration of cells such as blood and lymphatic vessels, bone cavities, perivascular tracks have smooth microscale topographical structures.(More)
T cells are activated by recognition of foreign peptides displayed on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs), an event that triggers assembly of a complex microscale structure at the T cell-APC interface known as the immunological synapse (IS). It remains unresolved whether the unique physical structure of the synapse itself impacts the functional(More)
BACKGROUND Perforin-1 (Prf1) is the predominant cytolytic protein secreted by natural killer (NK) cells. For a rapid immune response, resting NK cells contain high Prf1 mRNA concentrations while exhibiting minimal cytotoxicity caused by a blockage of Prf1 protein synthesis, implying that an unknown posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism exists. (More)
T cell activation occurs when T cell receptors engage peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules displayed on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs). Clustering of TCRs and other receptors in physical patterns at the T-APC interface forms a structure known as an immunological synapse (IS). Studies of the IS are challenging due to the(More)
Similar to stem cells, naïve T cells undergo asymmetric division following activation. While asymmetric division of T cells has been shown to be an important mechanism for the generation of lymphocyte fate diversity during immune responses, key factors that influence whether T cells will undergo symmetric or asymmetric divisions are not completely(More)
Cell-cell cooperativity in populations of motile and transiently interacting immune cells has been difficult to assess in the absence of tools to control proximity and communication. Here, we describe the generation of cell-laden microwells that can precisely control contact-mediated interactions and multicellular 'quorum' decisions in lymphocytes.(More)
Several methods based on screening for a 16S ribosomal RNA gene marker have been developed for rapid and sensitive detection of pathogenic microorganisms. One such method, CE-based SSCP (CE-SSCP), has enormous potential because the technique can separate sequence variants using a simple procedure. However, conventional CE-SSCP systems have limited(More)