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T cells slow their motility, increase adherence, and arrest after encounters with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) bearing peptide-MHC complexes. Here, we analyzed the cell-cell communication among activating T cells. In vivo and in vitro, activating T cells associated in large clusters that collectively persisted for >30 min, but they also engaged in more(More)
T cells are activated by recognition of foreign peptides displayed on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs), an event that triggers assembly of a complex microscale structure at the T cell-APC interface known as the immunological synapse (IS). It remains unresolved whether the unique physical structure of the synapse itself impacts the functional(More)
PD-1 is a well-established negative regulator of T cell responses by inhibiting proliferation and cytokine production of T cells via interaction with its ligands, B7-H1 (PD-L1) and B7-DC (PD-L2), expressed on non-T cells. Recently, PD-1 was found to be expressed in innate cells, including activated DCs, and plays roles in suppressing production of(More)
Bioprinting is a promising technique for engineering composite tissues, such as osteochondral tissues. In this study, as a first step toward bioprinting-based osteochondral tissue regeneration, we systematically examined the behavior of chondrocytes and osteoblasts to hyaluronic acid (HA) and type I collagen (Col-1) hydrogels. First, we demonstrated that(More)
T cells navigate complex microenvironments to initiate and modulate antigen-specific immune responses. While recent intravital microscopy study revealed that migration of T cells were guided by various tissue microstructures containing unique nanoscale topographical structures, the effects of complex nanotopographical structures on the migration of T cells(More)
Micro/nanofabricated surfaces have been widely used for the study of topography-guided migration of cells. While the current studies mostly utilized micro/nanostructures containing sharp edges, internal tissues guiding migration of cells such as blood and lymphatic vessels, bone cavities, perivascular tracks have smooth microscale topographical structures.(More)
T cell activation occurs when T cell receptors engage peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules displayed on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs). Clustering of TCRs and other receptors in physical patterns at the T-APC interface forms a structure known as an immunological synapse (IS). Studies of the IS are challenging due to the(More)
BACKGROUND Perforin-1 (Prf1) is the predominant cytolytic protein secreted by natural killer (NK) cells. For a rapid immune response, resting NK cells contain high Prf1 mRNA concentrations while exhibiting minimal cytotoxicity caused by a blockage of Prf1 protein synthesis, implying that an unknown posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism exists. (More)
T cells navigate a wide variety of tissues and organs for immune surveillance and effector functions. Although nanoscale topographical structures of extracellular matrices and stromal/endothelial cell surfaces in local tissues may guide the migration of T cells, there has been little opportunity to study how nanoscale topographical features affect T cell(More)
Cell-cell cooperativity in populations of motile and transiently interacting immune cells has been difficult to assess in the absence of tools to control proximity and communication. Here, we describe the generation of cell-laden microwells that can precisely control contact-mediated interactions and multicellular 'quorum' decisions in lymphocytes.(More)