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The tumor suppressor PTEN, a critical regulator for multiple cellular processes, is mutated or deleted frequently in various human cancers. Subtle reductions in PTEN expression levels have profound impacts on carcinogenesis. Here we show that PTEN level is regulated by ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation, and purified its ubiquitin ligase as(More)
Recently, traditional Chinese medicine and medicinal herbs have attracted more attentions worldwide for its anti-tumor efficacy. Celastrol and Triptolide, two active components extracted from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (known as Lei Gong Teng or Thunder of God Vine), have shown anti-tumor effects. Celastrol was identified as a natural 26(More)
Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process critical for cell viability and homoeostasis. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex-1 (mTORC1) activates autophagy. A puzzling observation is that amino acid starvation triggers more rapid autophagy than pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1, although they both block mTORC1 activity with similar(More)
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