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The mechanisms of arsenic (As) hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata, the first identified As hyperaccumulator, are unknown. We investigated the interactions of arsenate and phosphate on the uptake and distribution of As and phosphorus (P), and As speciation in P. vittata. In an 18-d hydroponic experiment with varying concentrations of arsenate and phosphate,(More)
The tumor suppressor PTEN, a critical regulator for multiple cellular processes, is mutated or deleted frequently in various human cancers. Subtle reductions in PTEN expression levels have profound impacts on carcinogenesis. Here we show that PTEN level is regulated by ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation, and purified its ubiquitin ligase as(More)
Expression of functionally active thrombomodulin (TM) on the luminal surface of endothelial cells is critical for vascular thromboresistance. TM maintains thrombohemorrhagic homeostasis by forming a complex with thrombin, which subsequently loses its procoagulant properties and instead activates protein C. Acquired deficiency of endothelial TM is of(More)
The intestine is often dose limiting during abdominal and pelvic radiation therapy. Delayed bowel toxicity is difficult to manage and adversely impacts the quality of life of long-term cancer survivors. Of the 8 to 9 million cancer survivors currently living in the United States, more than half have had abdominal or pelvic tumors, and about 60% of these(More)
Inhibitors of Rho kinase (ROCK) are a relatively new class of drugs with potential benefits in oncology, neurology, and fibrotic and cardiovascular diseases. ROCK inhibitors modulate many cellular functions, some of which are similar to the pleiotropic effects of statins, suggesting additive or synergistic properties. Studies to date have used compounds(More)
Caspase activation, the executing event of apoptosis, is under deliberate regulation. IAP proteins inhibit caspase activity, whereas Smac/Diablo antagonizes IAP. XIAP, a ubiquitous IAP, can inhibit both caspase-9, the initiator caspase of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and the downstream effector caspases, caspase-3 and caspase-7. Smac neutralizes(More)
Microvascular injury is believed to be mechanistically involved in radiation fibrosis, but direct molecular links between endothelial dysfunction and radiation fibrosis have not been established in vivo. We examined radiation-induced changes in endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) in irradiated intestine, and their(More)
Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression, requires stable reference genes to normalize its data. Salicornia europaea, a stem succulent halophyte with remarkable salt resistance and high capacity for ion accumulation, has not been investigated with regards to the selection of appropriate(More)
OBJECTIVE To summarize current knowledge regarding the role of the thrombomodulin (TM)-protein C system in acute and chronic radiation responses in normal tissues. DATA SOURCE Studies published in the biomedical literature during the past three decades and cited in PubMed and unpublished clinical and laboratory data from our own research program. STUDY(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To summarize current knowledge about gastrointestinal radiation toxicity, with emphasis on mechanisms and clinical diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS While there has been only modest change in cancer incidence and cancer mortality rates during the past 30 years, the number of cancer survivors has more than doubled. Moreover, the(More)