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AIM To observe the effects of extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb) on the Parkinson disease (PD) models induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its ion 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). METHODS MPTP was microinjected into substantia nigra of rats to induce a behavior change of rotation. EGb (ip, 50 or 100 mg.kg(1 . d-1) was(More)
Liouville's theorem on the conservation of phase-space volume is violated by Berry phase in the semiclassical dynamics of Bloch electrons. This leads to a modification of the phase-space density of states, whose significance is discussed in a number of examples: field modification of the Fermi-sea volume, connection to the anomalous Hall effect, and a(More)
A two-dimensional honeycomb lattice harbours a pair of inequivalent valleys in the k-space electronic structure, in the vicinities of the vertices of a hexagonal Brillouin zone, K(±). It is particularly appealing to exploit this emergent degree of freedom of charge carriers, in what is termed 'valleytronics'. The physics of valleys mimics that of spin, and(More)
The conventional definition of spin current is incomplete and unphysical in describing spin transport in systems with spin-orbit coupling. A proper and measurable spin current is established in this study, which fits well into the standard framework of near-equilibrium transport theory and has the desirable property to vanish in insulators with localized(More)
A magnetoconductivity formula is presented for the surface states of a magnetically doped topological insulator. It reveals a competing effect of weak localization and weak antilocalization in quantum transport when an energy gap is opened at the Dirac point by magnetic doping. It is found that, while random magnetic scattering always drives the system from(More)
We study the possibility of realizing topological phases in graphene with randomly distributed adsorbates. When graphene is subjected to periodically distributed adatoms, the enhanced spin-orbit couplings can result in various topological phases. However, at certain adatom coverages, the intervalley scattering renders the system a trivial insulator. By(More)
Conventional electronics are based invariably on the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron, namely its charge and spin. The exploration of novel electronic degrees of freedom has important implications in both basic quantum physics and advanced information technology. Valley, as a new electronic degree of freedom, has received considerable attention(More)
We propose a systematic procedure to directly extract the Eliashberg function for electron-phonon coupling from high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurement. The procedure is successfully applied to the Be(10(-)10) surface, providing new insights into electron-phonon coupling at this surface. The method is shown to be robust against(More)
Based on standard perturbation theory, we present a full quantum derivation of the formula for the orbital magnetization in periodic systems. The derivation is generally valid for insulators with or without a Chern number, for metals at zero or finite temperatures, and at weak as well as strong magnetic fields. The formula is shown to be valid in the(More)
We develop a general theory of electric polarization in crystals with inhomogeneous order. We show that the inhomogeneity-induced polarization can be classified into two parts: a perturbative contribution stemming from a correction to the basis functions and a topological contribution described in terms of the Chern-Simons form of the Berry gauge fields.(More)