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Nature has developed a fascinating strategy of cryptobiosis ("secret life") for counteracting the stressful, and often lethal, environmental conditions that fluctuate sporadically over time. For example, certain bacteria sporulate to transform from a metabolically active, vegetative state to an ametabolic endospore state. The bacterial endospores, encased(More)
Cells are encapsulated individually within thin and tough shells in a cytocompatible way, by mimicking the structure of bacterial endospores that survive under hostile conditions. The 3D 'cell-in-shell' structures-coined as 'artificial spores'-enable modulation and control over cellular metabolism, such as control of cell division, resistance to external(More)
The chronological progresses in single-cell nanocoating are described. The historical developments in the field are divided into biotemplating, cytocompatible nanocoating, and cells in nano-nutshells, depending on the main research focuses. Each subfield is discussed in conjunction with the others, regarding how and why to manipulate living cells by(More)
The cytoprotective coating of physicochemically labile mammalian cells with a durable material has potential applications in cell-based sensors, cell therapy, and regenerative medicine, as well as providing a platform for fundamental single-cell studies in cell biology. In this work, HeLa cells in suspension were individually coated with silica in a(More)
In this paper, we propose a novel anti-collision algorithm for generation 2 RFID system to estimate the number of tags and to use the optimal frame size. Depending on the number of tags, there exists the optimal frame size in the sense that the system efficiency is maximized. The number of tags can be estimated from the collision ratio in terms of collided(More)
In this Opinion we discuss the development of artificial spores and their maturation as an independent field of research. The robust cell-in-shell structures have displayed unprecedented characteristics, which include the retardation of cell division and extensive cytoprotective capabilities that encompass exposure to osmotic pressure, shear force, heat, UV(More)
Single-cell encapsulation promises the cytoprotection of the encased cells against lethal stressors, reminiscent of the sporulation process in nature. However, the development of a cytocompatible method for chemically mimicking the germination process (i.e., shell degradation on-demand) has been elusive, despite the shell degradation being pivotal for the(More)
The cytoprotection of individual living cells under in vitro and daily-life conditions is a prerequisite for various cell-based applications including cell therapy, cell-based sensors, regenerative medicine, and even the food industry. In this work, we use a cytocompatible two-step process to encapsulate Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a highly uniform(More)
Individual mammalian cells were coated with cytoprotective and degradable films by cytocompatible processes maintaining the cell viability. Three types of mammalian cells (HeLa, NIH 3T3, and Jurkat cells) were coated with a metal-organic complex of tannic acid (TA) and ferric ion, and the TA-Fe(III) nanocoat effectively protected the coated mammalian cells(More)
Formation of both mechanically durable and programmably degradable layer-by-layer (LbL) films in a biocompatible fashion has potential applications in cell therapy, tissue engineering, and drug-delivery systems, where the films are interfaced with living cells. In this work, we developed a simple but versatile method for generating in situ cross-linked and(More)