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To determine the influence of continuous hypoxia on body weight, food intake, hepatic glycogen, circulatory glucose, insulin, glucagon, leptin, and corticosterone, and the involvement of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) in modulation of these hormones, rats were exposed to a simulated altitude of 5 km (approximately 10.8% O2) in a(More)
Stress during gestation increases vulnerability to disease and changes behavior in offspring. We previously reported that hypoxia and restraint during pregnancy sensitized the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and induced anxiety-like behavior in the adult offspring. Here, we report that gestational intermittent hypoxia (GIH) elicited a(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate whether CRHR1 and CRHR2 are colocalized in CRH-specific neurons in rat brain. METHODS Double/triple immunofluorescence, and combined in situ hybridization were performed in the PVN, amygdala and hippocampus, and triple immunofluorescence was applied to the median eminence (ME), dorsal raphe (DR) and locus coeruleus (LC). (More)
Prenatal stress (PNS) is associated with increased biological risk for mental disorders such as anxiety and depression later in life, and stress appear to be additive to the PNS influences. Among the most widely cited and accepted alternative hypotheses of anxiety and depression is dysfunction of the HPA axis, a system that is central in orchestrating the(More)
We previously reported that gestational intermittent hypoxia (GIH) causes anxiety-like behavior in neonatal rats. Here, we showed that the anxiogenic effect was correlated with upregulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) by GIH, and was selective to male offspring. The anxiety-like(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a common complication in CKD patients, particularly in those with end-stage renal disease that requires dialysis. Lanthanum carbonate (LC) is a potent, non-aluminum, non-calcium phosphate binder. This systematic review evaluates the efficacy and safety of LC in CKD-MBD treatment for(More)
Claudins are a family of tight junction (TJ) membrane proteins involved in a broad spectrum of human diseases including cancer. Claudin-7 is a unique TJ membrane protein in that it has a strong basolateral membrane distribution in epithelial cells and in tissues. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the functional significance of this non-TJ(More)
BACKGROUND Decreased Core I β3-Gal-T-specific molecular chaperone (Cosmc) expression induced IgA1 aberrant glycosylation is the main characteristic of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). This study tried to elucidate the effect of Astragalus membranaceus on Cosmc expression and IgA O-glycosylation of peripheral B lymphocytes in IgAN patients. METHODS Peripheral B(More)
BACKGROUND In cultured NIH3T3 cells, P311 binds to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-1 latency-associated protein (LAP) and induces the myofibroblast phenotype. In this study, we determined the levels of P311 and TGF-β1 proteins in tubulointerstitial tissue of patients with different severities of immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN), and analyzed(More)