— The message passing approach to model-based signal processing is developed with a focus on Gaussian message passing in linear state space models, which includes recursive least squares, linear minimum-mean-squared-error estimation, and Kalman filtering algorithms. Tabulated message computation rules for the building blocks of linear models allow to… (More)
— Elaborating on prior work by Minka, we formulate a general computation rule for lossy messages. An important special case (with many applications in communications) is the conversion of " soft-bit " messages to Gaussian messages. By this method, the performance of a Kalman equalizer is improved, both for uncoded and coded transmission.
This semi-tutorial paper considers message passing algorithms on factor graphs of linear Gaussian models. Freshly polished tables of message computation rules are given and their use is demonstrated for soft-in soft-out equalization.
Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated… (More)
Monitoring the effects of no-tillage (NT) in comparison with conventional tillage (CT) on soil microbes could improve our understanding of soil biochemical processes and thus help us to develop sound management strategies. The objective of this study was to compare the species composition and ecological function of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi… (More)
BACKGROUND Members of the TGF-β superfamily are characterized by a highly promiscuous ligand-receptor interaction as is readily apparent from the numeral discrepancy of only seven type I and five type II receptors available for more than 40 ligands. Structural and functional studies have been used to address the question of how specific signals can be… (More)