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During anesthesia in mice, both common carotid arteries were tied loosely with an overhand knot suture (an occluder), while two snares (releasers) were placed in the knot so that it could be repeatedly tightened to occlude the arteries and loosened again to allow for reperfusion while the mice were conscious and unrestrained. The incidence of mortality as(More)
We present a case of a one-month-old infant with hypocalcemia and rickets, with symptoms of focal seizures. The ictal EEG showed left occipital spikes spreading over all of the left hemisphere. From the laboratory studies, we concluded that a low maternal circulating level of vitamin D would cause infantile hypocalcemia and rickets, while immature renal(More)
A 13-year-old mentally retarded boy suffered from repeated vomiting attacks since infancy. Each episode lasted 2 to 10 days, and was precipitated by respiratory infection, exercise or stress. During an attack he became irritated, agitated and amnesic, but did not have headaches or seizures. Associated findings were transient elevation of serum creatine(More)
We report two patients with fatal mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 123I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine was more sensitive to the lesions than CT or MRI. SPECT showed focal hyperperfusion before or during the stroke and diffuse hypoperfusion of(More)
A chronic inflammatory condition may underlie neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). For example, both PD and AD patients show an increase in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). TGF-β1 is a cytokine that inhibits inflammation. In the present study, using an(More)
We experienced a unique case of trapped fourth ventricle after shunting for post-meningitic hydrocephalus. A five-year-old infant was diagnosed as meningitis shortly after his birth, and secondarily suffered from hydrocephalus. He underwent lateral-ventriculo-peritoneal shunting, fourth-ventriculo-cisterna-magna shunting and so on, but bilateral abducens(More)
A 47-year-old woman had an episode of severe headache for a few days. She suddenly experienced right leg weakness and sensory loss. A CT scan revealed subcortical hematoma at the left parietal lobe on admission. Cerebral angiography showed multiple vascular irregularities such as segmentally narrow or sausage-like dialatated areas. Her laboratory studies(More)
We treated one hundred and seventy-eight epileptic children with carbamazepine (CBZ) for eight years. Among them, four children with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy, aged 11 months to 12 years, developed exacerbation of seizures. Their epilepsies were associated with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, head injury and ectopic gray matter. Despite the(More)
Ninety-four children (eighty-three boys and eleven girls), who were delayed in verbal expression (expressive language less than two-thirds of the standard for their chronological ages) at the age of three years, were evaluated for school attendance and intelligence at the age of six. The Yamada's Check List for Language Development and Wechsler Preschool(More)
A two-year-old, right-handed girl was admitted to our hospital with a history of partial seizures. The first seizure, conjugated eye movements and head turning to the right, occurred at the age of 24 months. Later, she suffered from several seizures daily at the age of 34 months. At the age of 35 months, she was admitted to our hospital. On admission her(More)
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