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Orexins (hypocretins) are a pair of neuropeptides implicated in energy homeostasis and arousal. Recent reports suggest that loss of orexin-containing neurons occurs in human patients with narcolepsy. We generated transgenic mice in which orexin-containing neurons are ablated by orexinergic-specific expression of a truncated Machado-Joseph disease gene(More)
Mammals respond to reduced food availability by becoming more wakeful and active, yet the central pathways regulating arousal and instinctual motor programs (such as food seeking) according to homeostatic need are not well understood. We demonstrate that hypothalamic orexin neurons monitor indicators of energy balance and mediate adaptive augmentation of(More)
Orexins (also called hypocretins) are peptide neurotransmitters expressed in neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Mice lacking the orexin peptides develop narcolepsy-like symptoms, whereas mice with a selective loss of the orexin neurons develop hypophagia and severe obesity in addition to the narcolepsy phenotype. These different phenotypes(More)
Narcolepsy-cataplexy is a neurological disorder associated with the inability to maintain wakefulness and abnormal intrusions of rapid eye movement sleep-related phenomena into wakefulness such as cataplexy. The vast majority of narcoleptic-cataplectic individuals have low or undetectable levels of orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides in the cerebrospinal(More)
Orexins are a pair of neuropeptides expressed by a population of neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Prepro-orexin- or orexin receptor type 2-deficient animals exhibit a phenotype remarkably similar to the human sleep disorder, narcolepsy, which is characterized by sleep/wakefulness fragmentation. Human narcolepsy is known to be(More)
Chlorinated organic compounds, prevalent contaminants found in the geo-environment, pose an ecological risk even at trace concentrations. More volatile chlorinated compounds such as VOCs (volatile organic compounds) have been detected in urban areas and industrial zones because of the use of these compounds as components of industrial solvents and both raw(More)
Stress-induced analgesia (SIA) is a key component of the defensive behavioral "fight-or-flight" response. Although the neural substrates of SIA are incompletely understood, previous studies have implicated the hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptidergic systems in the regulation of SIA. Using immunohistochemistry in brain tissue(More)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) has previously been shown to promote wakefulness and to induce arousal from hibernation. Expression of TRH-R1 (TRH receptor 1) is enriched in the tuberal and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), brain regions in which the hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) cells are located. Because the Hcrt system is implicated in sleep/wake control,(More)
Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal(More)