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1. The dependence of signal transfer in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) on stimulus spatial frequency and contrast was investigated by comparing responses of individual X cells with their direct retinal inputs. 2. We used extracellular single-cell recording methods to isolate action potentials (LGN) and S potentials (SPs) from individual neurons in(More)
The postnatal development of cortical binocularity is known to be adversely affected by early abnormal visual experience. However, little information exists on how the signals from the two eyes are combined in individual cortical neurons of animals reared with early discordant binocular visual experience. Since this is a fundamental issue in understanding(More)
Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that harbors epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations initially respond to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) but eventually experience relapse. Acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs is strongly associated with patient mortality. Thus, elucidation of the mechanism of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs is(More)
Recent advances in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with new agents require accurate histological subtyping at diagnosis to avoid the higher risk of an adverse response and to obtain the maximum therapeutic response. However, interobserver variability, tumor heterogeneity and the degree of differentiation may affect the decision(More)
Intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes (i-IELs) show features different from those of conventional T cells and play specific roles in the mucosal immunity. To investigate whether human bronchial intraepithelial T lymphocytes (IELs) are a distinct entity, we examined T cells in human bronchial xenografts transplanted on mice with severe combined immune(More)
OBJECTIVES We previously reported low expression of miR-375 in squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) and high expression in adenocarcinoma (AC) of the lung. miR-375's target genes and its function in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been elucidated. Therefore, the present study was designed to identify the targets of miR-375 and to characterize its(More)
OBJECTIVES Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 is a member of the FGF family, which modulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and motility. Recent studies show that the activation of FGF signals including FGF9 is associated with the pathogenesis of several cancers; however, its clinicopathological and biological significance in non-small cell lung cancer(More)
To investigate whether tachykinins are released in the airways in response to stimulation of the esophagus, we studied the airway plasma extravasation induced by intraesophageal HCl in the presence or absence of neutral endopeptidase inhibitor phosphoramidon and NK1-receptor antagonist FK-888 in anesthetized guinea pigs. The airway plasma leakage was(More)
BACKGROUND Several sensitive assays, including the PCR-invader method (structure-specific 5' nuclease-based method), have been used to detect EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, validation has not been reported. We assessed the detection rate of EGFR mutation by the PCR-invader method and direct sequencing using same clinical(More)
To study the mechanisms contributing to the recruitment of a selective leukocyte subset in allergic inflammation involving the airways as may occur in asthma, we examined whether allergic exposure induces the expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) on the bronchial endothelium of passively sensitized human bronchi. Human bronchial tissue obtained from(More)