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We developed a method to extract differentially chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) that are diffusely present in the central nervous system (CNS) matrix and CSPGs that are present in the condensed matrix of perineuronal nets (PNNs). Adult rat brain was sequentially extracted with Tris-buffered saline (TBS), TBS-containing detergent, 1 m NaCl, and 6 m(More)
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) have been implicated in the processes of neural development in the brain. In this study, we characterized developmentally regulated brain CS/DS chains using a single chain antibody, GD3G7, produced by the phage display technique. Evaluation of the specificity of GD3G7 toward various glycosaminoglycan(More)
Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains regulate the development of the central nervous system in vertebrates. Previously, we demonstrated that CS/DS hybrid chains from embryonic pig brain exhibit neuritogenic and growth factor binding activities, which depended on their IdoUA content defining the DS-like structure. To elucidate the distribution(More)
A highly potent and selective metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2, 3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N-methyl-3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC), is described. FTIDC inhibits, with equal potency, l-glutamate-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing(More)
Currently tested allosteric modulators for metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) are known to regulate the activity of mGluR1 mainly through transmembrane (TM) domain 6 and/or 7. We identified a novel interaction site, N760 in TM5, which negatively regulates activation of mGluR1 with a newly discovered selective mGluR1 antagonist,(More)
Dissociated culture of adult mouse dorsal root ganglion cells on glass plates, on which grating-associated microstructures (a repetition of microgrooves [mGRV] and microsteps [mSTP] of 0.1-10 micron) are fabricated by the conventional lithographic techniques, represents a remarkable bi-directional growth of their nerve fibers in the axial direction of the(More)
Mature functional hypothalamic neurons of male and female rats (21-day postnatal) were successfully cultured without attachment to non-neuronal cells in serum-free astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM). A novel cell-collecting method was designed for these vulnerable cells by allowing the dissociated cell suspension to stand in a vertically held, wide-tipped(More)
The presence of piperine in a serum-free medium for 72 h markedly inhibited the neurite extension of cultured hippocampal and septal neurons under both high and low density cell culture conditions (initial cell density was 10(5) cells/cm2 and 2.5-5 x 10(3) cells/cm2, respectively). The average length of neurites decreased over a concentration range of(More)
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