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Botnets • Bot • an instance of malware that runs on a compromised machine, without the owner's consent • the bot connects to a Command and Control (C&C) channel and waits to receive commands • Botnet • A group of bot-compromised machines controlled by a botmaster • Bots in the same botnet receive commands from the same botmaster and respond/act in a(More)
Botnets are now recognized as one of the most serious security threats. In contrast to previous malware, botnets have the characteristic of a command and control (C&C) channel. Botnets also often use existing common protocols, e.g., IRC, HTTP, and in protocol-conforming manners. This makes the detection of botnet C&C a challenging problem. In this paper, we(More)
A drive-by download attack occurs when a user visits a webpage which attempts to automatically download malware without the user's consent. Attackers sometimes use a <i>malware distribution network</i> (MDN) to manage a large number of malicious webpages, exploits, and malware executables. In this paper, we provide a new method to determine these MDNs from(More)
Acrolein-induced oxidative stress is hypothesized to involve in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Caffeic acid (CA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) have antioxidative and neuroprotective properties. The present study investigated the protective effects of CA/CAPE on acrolein-induced oxidative neuronal toxicity. HT22 mouse hippocampal cells(More)
Group II chaperonins are essential mediators of cellular protein folding in eukaryotes and archaea. These oligomeric protein machines, approximately 1 megadalton, consist of two back-to-back rings encompassing a central cavity that accommodates polypeptide substrates. Chaperonin-mediated protein folding is critically dependent on the closure of a built-in(More)
Cryo-electron microscopy produces 3D density maps of molecular machines, which consist of various molecular components such as proteins and RNA. Segmentation of individual components in such maps is a challenging task, and is mostly accomplished interactively. We present an approach based on the immersive watershed method and grouping of the resulting(More)
Botnets pose a serious threat to the health of the Internet. Most current network-based botnet detection systems require deep packet inspection (DPI) to detect bots. Because DPI is a computational costly process, such detection systems cannot handle large volumes of traffic typical of large enterprise and ISP networks. In this paper we propose a system that(More)
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows industrialized countries to comply with the Kyoto Protocol by using carbon offsets from developing countries. There are two puzzles within this carbon market: additionality (the proposed activity would not have occurred in its absence) and co-benefits (the project has other environmental benefits besides climate(More)
Conditions for the isolation and transfection of maize nucellus protoplasts were established. We demonstrated its utilization for protein expression, localization, protein–protein interaction, and the investigation of PCD-related processes. Plant protoplasts are an important and versatile cell system that is widely used in the analysis of gene(More)