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Botnets are now the key platform for many Internet attacks, such as spam, distributed denial-of-service (DDoS), identity theft, and phishing. Most of the current botnet detection approaches work only on specific botnet command and control (C&C) protocols (e.g., IRC) and structures (e.g., centralized), and can become ineffective as botnets change their C&C(More)
Botnets are now recognized as one of the most serious security threats. In contrast to previous malware, botnets have the characteristic of a command and control (C&C) channel. Botnets also often use existing common protocols, e.g., IRC, HTTP, and in protocol-conforming manners. This makes the detection of botnet C&C a challenging problem. In this paper, we(More)
A drive-by download attack occurs when a user visits a webpage which attempts to automatically download malware without the user's consent. Attackers sometimes use a <i>malware distribution network</i> (MDN) to manage a large number of malicious webpages, exploits, and malware executables. In this paper, we provide a new method to determine these MDNs from(More)
Group II chaperonins are essential mediators of cellular protein folding in eukaryotes and archaea. These oligomeric protein machines, approximately 1 megadalton, consist of two back-to-back rings encompassing a central cavity that accommodates polypeptide substrates. Chaperonin-mediated protein folding is critically dependent on the closure of a built-in(More)
Group II chaperonins are ATP-dependent ring-shaped complexes that bind nonnative polypeptides and facilitate protein folding in archaea and eukaryotes. A built-in lid encapsulates substrate proteins within the central chaperonin chamber. Here, we describe the fate of the substrate during the nucleotide cycle of group II chaperonins. The chaperonin(More)
Cryo-electron microscopy produces 3D density maps of molecular machines, which consist of various molecular components such as proteins and RNA. Segmentation of individual components in such maps is a challenging task, and is mostly accomplished interactively. We present an approach based on the immersive watershed method and grouping of the resulting(More)
Botnets pose a serious threat to the health of the Internet. Most current network-based botnet detection systems require deep packet inspection (DPI) to detect bots. Because DPI is a computational costly process, such detection systems cannot handle large volumes of traffic typical of large enterprise and ISP networks. In this paper we propose a system that(More)
Conditions for the isolation and transfection of maize nucellus protoplasts were established. We demonstrated its utilization for protein expression, localization, protein–protein interaction, and the investigation of PCD-related processes. Plant protoplasts are an important and versatile cell system that is widely used in the analysis of gene(More)
Canopy architecture improvements are a major focus in modern maize (Zea mays L.) breeding because appropriate canopy architecture could allow for the adaptation to high-density planting and high utilisation efficiency of solar energy. Therefore, understanding the genetic basis of canopy architecture-related traits is important for maize breeding. In this(More)