Junichiro Makino

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A luminous X-ray source is associated with MGG 11--a cluster of young stars approximately 200 pc from the centre of the starburst galaxy M 82 (refs 1, 2). The properties of this source are best explained by invoking a black hole with a mass of at least 350 solar masses (350 M(o)), which is intermediate between stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. A(More)
In this paper, we describe the architecture and performance of the GRAPE-6 system, a massivelyparallel special-purpose computer for astrophysical N -body simulations. GRAPE-6 is the successor of GRAPE-4, which was completed in 1995 and achieved the theoretical peak speed of 1.08 Tflops. As was the case with GRAPE-4, the primary application of GRAPE-6 is(More)
As an entry for the 2000 Gordon Bell performance prize, we report the performance achieved on a prototype GRAPE-6 system. GRAPE-6 is a special-purpose computer for astrophysical N-body calculations. The present configuration has 96 custom pipeline processors, each containing six pipeline processors for the calculation of gravitational interactions between(More)
Recent observations have revealed that an unexpectedly high fraction--a few per cent--of the trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) that inhabit the Kuiper belt are binaries. The components have roughly equal masses, with very eccentric orbits that are wider than a hundred times the radius of the primary. Standard theories of binary asteroid formation tend to(More)
In this paper we describe a new approach to implement the O(N) fast multipole method and O(N logN) tree method, which uses pseudoparticles to express the potential eld. The new method is similar to Anderson's method, which uses the values of potential at discrete points to represent the potential eld. However, for the same expansion order the new method is(More)
We describe the GRAPE-DR (Greatly Reduced Array of Processor Elements with Data Reduction) system, which will consist of 4096 processor chips each with 512 cores operating at the clock frequency of 500 MHz. The peak speed of a processor chip is 512Gflops (single precision) or 256 Gflops (double precision). The GRAPE-DR chip works as an attached processor(More)
We present a novel, highly efficient algorithm to parallelize O(N)direct summation method for N -body problems with individual timesteps on distributed-memory parallel machines such as Beowulf clusters. Previously known algorithms, in which all processors have complete copies of the N -body system, has the serious problem that the communication-computation(More)
We describe the GRAPE-4 (Gravity Pipe 4) system, a special-purpose computer for astrophysical N-body simulations. In N-body simulations, most of the computing time is spent to calculate the force between particles, since the number of interactions is proportional to the square of the number of particles. For many problems the accuracy of fast algorithms(More)