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The domain Archaea has historically been divided into two phyla, the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Although regarded as members of the Crenarchaeota based on small subunit rRNA phylogeny, environmental genomics and efforts for cultivation have recently revealed two novel phyla/divisions in the Archaea; the 'Thaumarchaeota' and 'Korarchaeota'. Here, we(More)
A computational analysis of the nuclear genome of a red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, identified 11 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes in which the 3' half of the tRNA lies upstream of the 5' half in the genome. We verified that these genes are expressed and produce mature tRNAs that are aminoacylated. Analysis of tRNA-processing intermediates for these genes(More)
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a central genetic element in the decoding of genome information for all of Earth's life forms. Nevertheless, there are a great number of missing tRNAs that have been left without examination, especially in microbial genomes. Two tRNA gene families remarkable in their structure and expression mechanism have been reported: split and(More)
In the archaea, some tRNA precursors contain intron(s) not only in the anticodon loop region but also in diverse sites of the gene (intron-containing tRNA or cis-spliced tRNA). The parasite Nanoarchaeum equitans, a member of the Nanoarchaeota kingdom, creates functional tRNA from separate genes, one encoding the 5'-half and the other the 3'-half (split tRNA(More)
In archaeal species, several transfer RNA genes have been reported to contain endogenous introns. Although most of the introns are located at anticodon loop regions between nucleotide positions 37 and 38, a number of introns at noncanonical sites and six cases of tRNA genes containing two introns have also been documented. However, these tRNA genes are(More)
tRNA splicing endonucleases, essential enzymes found in Archaea and Eukaryotes, are involved in the processing of pre-tRNA molecules. In Archaea, three types of splicing endonuclease [homotetrameric: α(4), homodimeric: α(2), and heterotetrameric: (αβ)(2)] have been identified, each representing different substrate specificity during the tRNA intron(More)
The limited locations of tRNA introns are crucial for eukaryal tRNA-splicing endonuclease recognition. However, our analysis of the nuclear genome of an early-diverged red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, demonstrated the first evidence of nuclear-encoded tRNA genes that contain ectopic and/or multiple introns. Some genes exhibited both intronic and permuted(More)
We updated the tRNADB-CE by analyzing 939 complete and 1301 draft genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, 171 complete virus genomes, 121 complete chloroplast genomes and approximately 230 million sequences obtained by metagenome analyses of 210 environmental samples. The 287 102 tRNA genes in total, and thus two times of the tRNA genes compiled previously,(More)
The discovery of separate 5' and 3' halves of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules-so-called split tRNA-in the archaeal parasite Nanoarchaeum equitans made us wonder whether ancestral tRNA was encoded on 1 or 2 genes. We performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of tRNAs in 45 archaeal species to explore the relationship between the three types of tRNAs(More)
Class II transfer RNAs (tRNAs), including tRNA(Leu) and tRNA(Ser), have an additional stem and loop structure, the long variable arm (V-arm). Here, we describe Class II tRNAs with a unique anticodon corresponding to neither leucine nor serine. Because these tRNAs are specifically conserved among the nematodes, we have called them 'nematode-specific(More)