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Crenarchaeota are ubiquitous and abundant microbial constituents of soils, sediments, lakes, and ocean waters. To further describe the cosmopolitan nonthermophilic Crenarchaeota, we analyzed the genome sequence of one representative, the uncultivated sponge symbiont Cenarchaeum symbiosum. C. symbiosum genotypes coinhabiting the same host partitioned into(More)
The domain Archaea has historically been divided into two phyla, the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Although regarded as members of the Crenarchaeota based on small subunit rRNA phylogeny, environmental genomics and efforts for cultivation have recently revealed two novel phyla/divisions in the Archaea; the 'Thaumarchaeota' and 'Korarchaeota'. Here, we(More)
A computational analysis of the nuclear genome of a red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, identified 11 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes in which the 3' half of the tRNA lies upstream of the 5' half in the genome. We verified that these genes are expressed and produce mature tRNAs that are aminoacylated. Analysis of tRNA-processing intermediates for these genes(More)
The practical realization of DNA data storage is a major scientific goal. Here we introduce a simple, flexible, and robust data storage and retrieval method based on sequence alignment of the genomic DNA of living organisms. Duplicated data encoded by different oligonucleotide sequences was inserted redundantly into multiple loci of the Bacillus subtilis(More)
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a central genetic element in the decoding of genome information for all of Earth's life forms. Nevertheless, there are a great number of missing tRNAs that have been left without examination, especially in microbial genomes. Two tRNA gene families remarkable in their structure and expression mechanism have been reported: split and(More)
The analysis of archaeal tRNA genes is becoming more important to evaluate the origin and evolution of tRNA molecule. Even with the recent accumulation of complete genomes of numerous archaeal species, several tRNA genes are still required for a full complement of the codon table. We conducted comprehensive screening of tRNA genes from 47 archaeal genomes(More)
In the archaea, some tRNA precursors contain intron(s) not only in the anticodon loop region but also in diverse sites of the gene (intron-containing tRNA or cis-spliced tRNA). The parasite Nanoarchaeum equitans, a member of the Nanoarchaeota kingdom, creates functional tRNA from separate genes, one encoding the 5'-half and the other the 3'-half (split tRNA(More)
In archaeal species, several transfer RNA genes have been reported to contain endogenous introns. Although most of the introns are located at anticodon loop regions between nucleotide positions 37 and 38, a number of introns at noncanonical sites and six cases of tRNA genes containing two introns have also been documented. However, these tRNA genes are(More)
The following unusual tRNAs have recently been discovered in the genomes of Archaea and primitive Eukaryota: multiple-intron-containing tRNAs, which have more than one intron; split tRNAs, which are produced from two pieces of RNA transcribed from separate genes; tri-split tRNAs, which are produced from three separate genes; and permuted tRNA, in which the(More)
tRNA splicing endonucleases, essential enzymes found in Archaea and Eukaryotes, are involved in the processing of pre-tRNA molecules. In Archaea, three types of splicing endonuclease [homotetrameric: α(4), homodimeric: α(2), and heterotetrameric: (αβ)(2)] have been identified, each representing different substrate specificity during the tRNA intron(More)