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BACKGROUND Plant promoter architecture is important for understanding regulation and evolution of the promoters, but our current knowledge about plant promoter structure, especially with respect to the core promoter, is insufficient. Several promoter elements including TATA box, and several types of transcriptional regulatory elements have been found to(More)
Plastid DNA fragments are often found in the plant nuclear genome, and DNA transfer from plastids to the nucleus is ongoing. However, successful gene transfer is rare. What happens to compensate for this? To address this question, we analyzed nuclear-localized plastid DNA (nupDNA) fragments throughout the rice (Oryza sativa ssp japonica) genome, with(More)
RNA editing alters genomic nucleotide sequences at the transcript level. In higher plant chloroplasts, C-to-U conversion is known to occur at around 30 specific sites. The tobacco cultivar Nicotiana tabacum is an amphidiploid derived from ancestors of N. sylvestris (maternal) and N. tomentosiformis (paternal). The chloroplast genome of N. tabacum is(More)
Our limited understanding of plant promoters does not allow us to recognize any core promoter elements for the majority of plant promoters. To understand the promoter architecture of Arabidopsis, we used the combined approach of in silico detection of novel core promoter elements and large-scale determination of transcription start sites (TSSs). To this(More)
ppdb (http://www.ppdb.gene.nagoya-u.ac.jp) is a plant promoter database that provides promoter annotation of Arabidopsis and rice. The database contains information on promoter structures, transcription start sites (TSSs) that have been identified from full-length cDNA clones and also a vast amount of TSS tag data. In ppdb, the promoter structures are(More)
The promoter architecture of the nuclear-encoded photosystem I genes was studied using a tobacco gene, psaDb, as a model case. Linker scanning mutations revealed that the psaDb promoter does not have a TATA box. Instead, pyrimidine-rich Initiator (Inr) elements that overlap the transcription start sites are essential for light-responsive transcription of(More)
RNA editing involves a variety of genetic systems and occurs by different mechanisms. In higher plant chloroplasts, specific sites of some transcripts are subject to C-to-U conversion. We have previously shown that site-specific trans-acting factors for psbE and petB mRNA editing bind corresponding cis-elements, which are located 5 nucleotides upstream from(More)
Mammalian promoters are categorized into TATA and CpG-related groups, and they have complementary roles associated with differentiated transcriptional characteristics. While the TATA box is also found in plant promoters, it is not known if CpG-type promoters exist in plants. Plant promoters contain Y Patches (pyrimidine patches) in the core promoter region,(More)
psaDb is a nuclear gene encoding the ferredoxin-binding subunit of photosystem I in Nicotiana sylvestris. The organization of the light-responsive cis-elements of psaDb was studied using transgenic tobacco plants. Three types of psaDb chimeric constructs were created: (1) a 5' upstream fragment of psaDb transcriptionally fused with the beta-glucuronidase(More)
RNA editing in higher-plant chloroplasts involves C-to-U conversions at specific sites. Although in vivo analyses have been performed, little is known about the biochemical aspects of chloroplast editing reactions. Here we improved our original in vitro system and devised a procedure for preparing active chloroplast extracts not only from tobacco plants but(More)