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Structural features of neurons create challenges for effective production and distribution of essential metabolic energy. We investigated how metabolic energy is distributed between cellular compartments in photoreceptors. In avascular retinas, aerobic production of energy occurs only in mitochondria that are located centrally within the photoreceptor. Our(More)
Arrestins ensure the timely termination of receptor signaling. The role of rhodopsin phosphorylation in visual arrestin binding was established more than 20 years ago, but the effects of the number of receptor-attached phosphates on this interaction remain controversial. Here we use purified rhodopsin fractions with carefully quantified content of(More)
Fatty acid acylation of proteins is a well-studied co- or posttranslational modification typically conferring membrane trafficking signals or membrane anchoring properties to proteins. Commonly observed examples of protein acylation include N-terminal myristoylation and palmitoylation of cysteine residues. In the present study, direct tissue profiling mass(More)
Activation of rod photoreceptors by light induces a massive redistribution of the heterotrimeric G-protein transducin. In darkness, transducin is sequestered within the membrane-enriched outer segments of the rod cell. In light, it disperses throughout the entire neuron. We show here that redistribution of rod transducin by light requires activation, but it(More)
Collision-induced reporter fragmentations of the currently most important covalent peptide modifications as detected by tandem mass spectrometry are summarized. These fragmentations comprise the formation of reporter ions, which are preferentially immonium ions, immonium ion-derived fragments or side chain fragments. In addition, the reporter neutral loss(More)
In this study, a novel liposome-loaded microbubble gel based on N-cholesteryl hemisuccinate-O-sulfate chitosan (NCHOSC) was designed. The structure of the NCHOSC was characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR. The liposomal microbubble gel based on NCHOSC with a high encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was formed and improved the solubility of curcumin. The(More)
Protein analysis by database search engines using tandem mass spectra is limited by the presence of unexpected protein modifications, sequence isoforms which may not be in the protein databases, and poor quality tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of low abundance proteins. The analysis of expected protein modifications can be efficiently addressed by(More)
AIMS Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) is a major obstacle in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). MiRNAs is considered as an important modulator of drug resistance in many cancers. Here, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between miR-20a, its predicted target genes leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) and TMZ(More)
In this paper, a 'green' and safe hydrothermal method has been used to reduce graphene oxide and produce hemin modified graphene nanosheet (HGN) based electrochemical biosensors for the determination of l-tyrosine levels. The as-fabricated HGN biosensors were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, Fourier transform infrared(More)