Hundreds of small RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides, collectively named microRNAs (miRNAs), have been discovered recently in animals and plants. Although their functions are being unravelled, their mechanism of biogenesis remains poorly understood. miRNAs are transcribed as long primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) whose maturation occurs through sequential… (More)
We present a novel method of targeted gene disruption that involves direct injection of recombinant Cas9 protein complexed with guide RNA into the gonad of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Biallelic mutants were recovered among the F1 progeny, demonstrating the high efficiency of this method.
BACKGROUND Dendrites often display remarkably complex and diverse morphologies that are influenced by developmental and environmental cues. Neuroplasticity in response to adverse environmental conditions entails both hypertrophy and resorption of dendrites. How dendrites rapidly alter morphology in response to unfavorable environmental conditions is… (More)
Although much is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in transporting soluble proteins to the central vacuole, the mechanisms governing the trafficking of membrane proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanism involved in targeting the membrane protein, AtβFructosidase 4 (AtβFruct4), to the central vacuole in… (More)
—Hybrid multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems consist of an analog beamformer with large antenna arrays followed by a digital MIMO processor. Channel estimation for hybrid MIMO systems in millimeter wave (mm-wave) communications is challenging because of the large antenna array and the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) before beamforming. In this… (More)
Many nematodes show a stage-specific behavior called nictation in which a worm stands on its tail and waves its head in three dimensions. Here we show that nictation is a dispersal behavior regulated by a specific set of neurons, the IL2 cells, in C. elegans. We established assays for nictation and showed that cholinergic transmission was required for… (More)
—Due to the high cost and power consumption of radio frequency (RF) chains, millimeter wave (mm-wave) communication systems equipped with large antenna arrays typically employ less RF chains than the antenna elements. This leads to the use of a hybrid MIMO processor consisting of a RF beamformer and a baseband MIMO processor in mm-wave communications. In… (More)
Motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interface systems (BCIs) normally use a powerful spatial filtering and classification method to maximize their performance. The common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm is a widely used spatial filtering method for MI-based BCIs. In this work, we propose a new sparse representation-based classification (SRC) scheme for… (More)