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Due to the lack of development in the area of sample preparation, few complete lab-on-a-chip systems have appeared in recent years that can deal with raw samples. Cell lysis and nucleic acid extraction systems are sufficiently complex even before adding the complexity of an analysis system. In this review, a variety of microfluidic sample preparation(More)
Microfluidic platforms provide several unique advantages for drug development. In the production of drug carriers, physical properties such as size and shape, and chemical properties such as drug composition and pharmacokinetic parameters, can be modified simply and effectively by tuning the flow rate and geometries. Large numbers of carriers can then be(More)
Recent advances in microfluidics have created new and exciting prospects for gene delivery and therapy. The micro-scaled environment within microfluidic systems enables precise control and optimization of multiple processes and techniques used in gene transfection and the production of gene and drug transporters. Traditional non-viral gene transfection(More)
Recently, there has been a growing interest in point-of-care devices capable of detecting nucleic acids (NA) in clinical and environmental samples. Nucleic acid detection requires, however, various sample preparation steps that complicate device operation. An attractive remedy is to integrate many, if not all, sample preparation operations and nucleic acid(More)
We describe the development and characterization of pneumatically actuated "lifting gate" microvalves and pumps. A fluidic layer containing the gate structure and a pneumatic layer are fabricated by soft-lithography in PDMS and bonded permanently with an oxygen plasma treatment. The microvalve structures are then reversibly bonded to a featureless glass or(More)
Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a combination of double-sided tape and PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) is introduced. PDMS is typically difficult to bond using adhesive tapes due to its hydrophobic nature and low surface energy. For this reason, PDMS is not compatible with the xurography method, which uses a knife plotter and various adhesive(More)
A Hall-effect biosensor based on magnetic label detection is implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS. No external magnet, reference sensor or calibration is required. The sensor offset is suppressed to sub-μV by a mixed-signal feedback loop and correlated double sampling (CDS). Flicker noise and thermal noise are rejected by CDS and averaging. A single 4.5 μm bead is(More)
A digitally programmable microfluidic Automaton consisting of a 2-dimensional array of pneumatically actuated microvalves is programmed to perform new multiscale mixing and sample processing operations. Large (μL-scale) volume processing operations are enabled by precise metering of multiple reagents within individual nL-scale valves followed by serial(More)
Microfluidic devices offer unparalleled capability for digital microfluidic automation of sample processing and complex assay protocols in medical diagnostic and research applications. In our own work, monolithic membrane valves have enabled the creation of two platforms that precisely manipulate discrete, nanoliter-scale volumes of sample. The digital(More)