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The release of cyanobacterial toxins, such as microcystin-LR, in drinking water supplies is of increasing concern. In this study, we investigated the use of ultrafiltration (UF) combined with adsorption on powdered activated carbon (PAC) for the removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water. Process variables examined included PAC type, PAC dosage, membrane(More)
Force feedback plays a very important role in medical surgery. In minimally invasive surgery (MIS), however, the very long and stiff bars of surgical instruments greatly diminish force feedback for the surgeon. In the case of minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS), force feedback is totally eliminated. Previous researchers have reported that the absence(More)
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