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The current era of vaccinology has resulted in antigens produced by synthetic chemistry and by genetic engineering techniques; these may provide more effective and safe vaccines. Many of these antigens can be produced in large quantities and in relatively pure form. However, inherent in their simplified, defined structures is a lack of immunogenicity and(More)
Bacterial infections are lethal complications of neutropenia, and antibiotics alone are inadequate therapy for these infections. Irradiated mice become severely neutropenic and remain susceptible to infection for 2 to 3 weeks, depending on the dose and quality of radiation. Some bacterial cell wall derivatives stimulate nonspecific host defense mechanisms(More)
The systemic fungicide carboxin (5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-oxathiin-3-carboxanilide) at 100 mum inhibited succinate cytochrome c reductase in mitochondria from Ustilago maydis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It did not have any effect on reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) cytochrome c reductase. Succinate coenzyme Q reductase was also inhibited,(More)
Because mucosal surfaces are a primary route of HIV-1 infection, we evaluated the mucosal immunogenicity of a candidate HIV-1 vaccine, oligomeric gp160 (o-gp160). In prior studies, parenteral immunization of rabbits with o-gp160 elicited broad neutralizing serum Ab responses against both T cell line-adapted HIV-1 and some primary HIV-1 isolates. In this(More)
Studies were undertaken to demonstrate the efficacy of erythromycin in killing Legionella pneumophila organisms that have been ingested by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. With use of an electron microscope-autoradiography method in conjunction with an antibiotic-uptake assay, it was shown that [3H]-labeled erythromycin A base penetrated into the(More)
Current human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope vaccine candidates elicit high antibody binding titers with neutralizing activity against T-cell line-adapted but not primary HIV-1 isolates. Serum antibodies from these human vaccine recipients were also found to be preferentially directed to linear epitopes within gp120 that are poorly exposed(More)
The induction of protective immunity stemming from vaccines delivered by mucosal routes is dependent on the development of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants. The immunostimulant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL(R)) was evaluated for its ability to enhance both systemic and mucosal immunity to three distinct antigens. Vaccines formulated with MPL(R) and(More)
The effectiveness of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) as a mucosal adjuvant was investigated following oral or intranasal (i.n.) administration of an aqueous adjuvant formulation of MPL (MPL-AF) added to soluble antigen or liposomal antigen or incorporated into liposomal antigen membranes. Groups of BALB/c female mice were immunized with 50 to 100 microg of(More)
BACKGROUND Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) is a detoxified derivative of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) moiety of Salmonella minnesota R595, which has retained immunostimulatory activities. MPL has been administered to many subjects in clinical trials as an adjuvant component of infectious disease vaccines and is currently a component of a licensed cancer(More)
Adjuvants are known to strongly enhance immune responses generated by traditional vaccines, but less is known about the effects of adjuvants on vaccination with DNA. In this study, we investigated the use of the immunostimulant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL(R)) as an adjuvant, and analyzed three routes of DNA vaccination to determine if this adjuvant could(More)