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Low-voltage-activated calcium channels, also known as T-type calcium channels, are widely expressed in various types of neurons. In contrast to high-voltage-activated calcium channels which can be activated by a strong depolarization of membrane potential, T-type channels can be activated by a weak depolarization near the resting membrane potential once(More)
T-type calcium channels have been implicated as a pacemaker for brain rhythms during sleep but their contribution to behavioral states of sleep has been relatively uncertain. Here, we found that mice lacking alpha1(G) T-type Ca(2+) channels showed a loss of the thalamic delta (1-4 Hz) waves and a reduction of sleep spindles (7-14 Hz), whereas slow (<1 Hz)(More)
Thalamocortical neurons in mammals fire action potentials in two different modes, burst or tonic, depending on the cellular state. The burst firing is driven by the low threshold Ca2+ spike that is generated by Ca2+ influx through T-type Ca2+ channels, and has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of absence epilepsy and the regulation of sleep rhythms.(More)
Absence seizures are characterized by cortical spike-wave discharges (SWDs) on electroencephalography, often accompanied by a shift in the firing pattern of thalamocortical (TC) neurons from tonic to burst firing driven by T-type Ca(2+) currents. We recently demonstrated that the phospholipase C beta4 (PLCbeta4) pathway tunes the firing mode of TC neurons(More)
T-type Ca(2+) channels in thalamocortical (TC) neurons have long been considered to play a critical role in the genesis of sleep spindles, one of several TC oscillations. A classical model for TC oscillations states that reciprocal interaction between synaptically connected GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons and glutamatergic TC neurons(More)
Sleep is characterized by synchronized electrical activities of the thalamocortical network, which can be identified as the EEG oscillations during sleep. T-type calcium channels have been implicated in the occurrence of sleep waves, and burst firings in the thalamic neurons driven by these channels are known to be essential for modulation of sleep rhythms.(More)
The transition from wakefulness to a nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep state at the onset of sleep involves a transition from low-voltage, high-frequency irregular electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms to large-amplitude, low-frequency EEG waveforms accompanying synchronized oscillatory activity in the thalamocortical circuit. The thalamocortical circuit(More)
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