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Signals derived from the rat motor cortex can be used for controlling one-dimensional movements of a robot arm. It remains unknown, however, whether real-time processing of cortical signals can be employed to reproduce, in a robotic device, the kind of complex arm movements used by primates to reach objects in space. Here we recorded the simultaneous(More)
A cDNA encoding a novel multispecific organic anion transporter, OAT4, was isolated from a human kidney cDNA library. The OAT4 cDNA consisted of 2210 base pairs that encoded a 550-amino acid residue protein with 12 putative membrane-spanning domains. The amino acid sequence of OAT4 showed 38 to 44% identity to those of other members of the OAT family.(More)
Appendage formation is organized by signals from discrete sources that presumably act upon downstream genes to control growth and patterning. The Drosophila vestigial gene is selectively required for wing-cell proliferation, and is sufficient to induce outgrowths of wing tissue from eyes, legs and antennae. Different signals activate separate enhancers to(More)
Somatic cell nuclear transfer and transcription-factor-based reprogramming revert adult cells to an embryonic state, and yield pluripotent stem cells that can generate all tissues. Through different mechanisms and kinetics, these two reprogramming methods reset genomic methylation, an epigenetic modification of DNA that influences gene expression, leading(More)
Calcium influx through N-type calcium channels mediates synaptic transmission at numerous central synapses and transduces nociceptive information in the spinal dorsal horn. However, the precise role of N-type calcium channels in pain perception is not fully elucidated. To address this issue, we generated and analyzed knockout mice for alpha(1B,) the(More)
An RNA model system consisting of an oligomer binding to a 4-nt overhang at the 5' end of a hairpin stem provides thermodynamic parameters for helix-helix interfaces. In a sequence-dependent manner, oligomers bind up to 1000-fold more tightly adjacent to the hairpin stem than predicted for binding to a free tetramer at 37 degrees C. For the interface (/) in(More)
ID elements are short interspersed repetitive DNA elements (SINEs) which have amplified in rodent genomes via retroposition, a process involving an RNA intermediate. BC1, an abundant ID-related transcript, is transcribed from a conserved, single-copy gene in rodents. The gene encoding BC1 RNA represents one of the earliest and possibly the first(More)
Although T-type Ca(2+) channels are implicated in nociception, the function of specific subtypes has not been well defined. Here, we compared pain susceptibility in mice lacking Ca(V)3.2 subtype of T-type Ca(2+) channels (Ca(V)3.2(-/-)) with wild-type littermates in various behavioral models of pain to explore the roles of Ca(V)3.2 in the processing of(More)
Proper functioning of organelles necessitates efficient protein targeting to the appropriate subcellular locations. For example, degradation in the fungal vacuole relies on an array of targeting mechanisms for both resident hydrolases and their substrates. The particular processes that are used vary depending on the available nutrients. Under starvation(More)
Research on knowledge of results and knowledge of performance has been directed toward identification of the optimal schedule for administering feedback. The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether a schedule based on performance feedback controlled by the learner would be a more effective means of delivering feedback than any predetermined or(More)