Learn More
Signals derived from the rat motor cortex can be used for controlling one-dimensional movements of a robot arm. It remains unknown, however, whether real-time processing of cortical signals can be employed to reproduce, in a robotic device, the kind of complex arm movements used by primates to reach objects in space. Here we recorded the simultaneous(More)
Appendage formation is organized by signals from discrete sources that presumably act upon downstream genes to control growth and patterning. The Drosophila vestigial gene is selectively required for wing-cell proliferation, and is sufficient to induce outgrowths of wing tissue from eyes, legs and antennae. Different signals activate separate enhancers to(More)
Somatic cell nuclear transfer and transcription-factor-based reprogramming revert adult cells to an embryonic state, and yield pluripotent stem cells that can generate all tissues. Through different mechanisms and kinetics, these two reprogramming methods reset genomic methylation, an epigenetic modification of DNA that influences gene expression, leading(More)
Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila(More)
An RNA model system consisting of an oligomer binding to a 4-nt overhang at the 5' end of a hairpin stem provides thermodynamic parameters for helix-helix interfaces. In a sequence-dependent manner, oligomers bind up to 1000-fold more tightly adjacent to the hairpin stem than predicted for binding to a free tetramer at 37 degrees C. For the interface (/) in(More)
The TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta)-related signalling proteins, including Decapentaplegic (Dpp) in Drosophila-and bone morphogenic proteins and activin in vertebrates, affect the growth and patterning of a great variety of structures. However, the mechanisms by which these ligands regulate gene expression are not understood. Activation of(More)
OBJECTIVES To characterize mesenchymal stem cell-like cells isolated from human amniotic fluid for a new source of therapeutic cells. MATERIALS Fibroblastoid-type cells obtained from amniotic fluid at the time of birth. METHODS The ability of ex vivo expansion was investigated until senescence, and stem cell-like characteristics were analyzed by(More)
Evolutionary relationships among the 11 extant orders of insects that undergo complete metamorphosis, called Holometabola, remain either unresolved or contentious, but are extremely important as a context for accurate comparative biology of insect model organisms. The most phylogenetically enigmatic holometabolan insects are Strepsiptera or twisted wing(More)
Arthropods and vertebrates are constructed of many serially homologous structures whose individual patterns are regulated by Hox genes. The Hox-regulated target genes and developmental pathways that determine the morphological differences between any homologous structures are not known. The differentiation of the Drosophila haltere from the wing through the(More)