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Ultrasound induced microbubble cavitation can cause enhanced permeability across natural barriers of tumors such as vessel walls or cellular membranes, allowing for enhanced therapeutic delivery into the target tissues. While enhanced delivery of small (<1nm) molecules has been shown at acoustic pressures below 1MPa both in vitro and in vivo, the delivery(More)
Synthetic phased array (SPA) beamforming with Hadamard coding and aperture weighting is an optimal option for real-time volumetric imaging with a ring array, a particularly attractive geometry in intracardiac and intravascular applications. However, the imaging frame rate of this method is limited by the immense computational load required in synthetic(More)
— Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia that now affects over 2.2 million adults in the United States alone. Currently fluoroscopy is the most common method for guiding interventional electrophysiological procedures. We are developing a 9-F forward-looking intracardiac ultrasound catheter for real-time volumetric imaging. We(More)
A ring array provides a very suitable geometry for forward-looking volumetric intracardiac and intravascular ultrasound imaging. We fabricated an annular 64-element capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array featuring a 10-MHz operating frequency and a 1.27-mm outer radius. A custom software suite was developed to run on a PC-based imaging(More)
3D ultrasound imaging is becoming increasingly prevalent in the medical field. Compared to conventional 2D imaging systems, 3D imaging can provide a detailed view of tissue structures that makes diagnosis easier for the physicians. In addition, 2D image slices can be formed at various orientations to the transducer , making the examination less dependent on(More)
Real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging systems require transmit and receive circuitry to generate ultrasound beams and process received echo signals. The complexity of building such a system is high due to requirement of the front-end electronics needing to be very close to the transducer. A large number of elements also need to be interfaced to the(More)
In 3-D ultrasound imaging where 2-D transducer arrays with more than hundreds of elements are used, sparse arrays can be used to reduce the number of active ultrasound channels. Under a restriction of desired number of active channels, we can maximize the image quality by optimally choosing the positions of active elements. Here we use the method of(More)
Treatment options for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are limited, in particular in advanced and drug resistant HCC. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are non-coding small RNAs that are emerging as novel drugs for the treatment of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess treatment effects of two complementary miRNAs (sense miRNA-122, and antisense(More)
Contemporary sonography is performed by digitally beamforming signals sampled by several transducer elements placed upon an array. High-resolution digital beamforming introduces the demand for a sampling rate significantly higher than the signal's Nyquist rate, which greatly increases the volume of data that must be processed. In 3D ultrasound imaging, 2D(More)
Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays are conveniently integrated with frontend integrated circuits either monolithically or in a hybrid multichip form. This integration helps with reducing the number of active data processing channels for 2D arrays. This approach also preserves the signal integrity for arrays with small elements.(More)