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Plasticity of the nervous system is dependent on mechanisms that regulate the strength of synaptic transmission. Excitatory synapses in the brain undergo long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), cellular models of learning and memory. Protein phosphorylation is required for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity, including(More)
Electrolytic lesions to the amygdala, a limbic structure implicated in stress-related behaviors and memory modulation, have been shown to prevent stress-induced impairments of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory in rats. The present study investigated the role of intrinsic amygdalar neurons in mediating stress effects on the(More)
In the fear conditioning literature, it is generally hypothesized that neurons in the basolateral amygdalar complex (BLA) (lateral and basal nuclei) support the formation of conditioned fear memory and project to neurons in the central nucleus (CeA) for the expression of conditioned fear responses. According to this serial processing-transmission view,(More)
Among the various phenotypes seen in Down syndrome (DS), mental retardation is the most common and most debilitating condition suffered by individuals with DS. The DYRK1A gene on human chromosome 21q22.2 encodes a subfamily of protein kinases that displays dual substrate specificities and is known to play a critical role in neurodevelopment. To study DS(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Vascular pathology and Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology have been shown to coexist in the brains of dementia patients. We investigated how cognitive impairment could be exacerbated in a rat model of combined injury through the interaction of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and amyloid beta (Aβ) toxicity. METHODS In Wistar rats,(More)
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is characterized by the presence of activated microglia. We investigated whether chronic neuroinflammation affects the induction of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and NMDAR-independent LTP which is expressed by(More)
Sulforaphane, an organosulfur compound present in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration. To determine whether sulforaphane can preserve cognitive function, we examined its effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze(More)
The hippocampus is vulnerable to uncontrollable stress and is enriched with oxytocin receptors, but their interactive influences on hippocampal functioning are unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on stress-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity and spatial memory in male rats. While(More)
BACKGROUND Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), an herbal plant, is traditionally used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in Asian countries. SM has multiple biological effects including anti-inflammatory activity. The present study is aimed at investigating the effects of SM extract in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. METHODS(More)
In the current investigation, the status of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic pathway and hippocampal mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was examined in male Wistar rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which showed cognitive deficits based on assessment on a version of the Morris water maze. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was induced by(More)