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Plasticity of the nervous system is dependent on mechanisms that regulate the strength of synaptic transmission. Excitatory synapses in the brain undergo long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), cellular models of learning and memory. Protein phosphorylation is required for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity, including(More)
Long-term depression (LTD) in sensory cortices depends on the activation of NMDA receptors. Here, we report that in visual cortical slices, the induction of LTD (but not long-term potentiation) also requires the activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. Using immunolesions in combination with agonists and antagonists, we(More)
In the fear conditioning literature, it is generally hypothesized that neurons in the basolateral amygdalar complex (BLA) (lateral and basal nuclei) support the formation of conditioned fear memory and project to neurons in the central nucleus (CeA) for the expression of conditioned fear responses. According to this serial processing-transmission view,(More)
Electrolytic lesions to the amygdala, a limbic structure implicated in stress-related behaviors and memory modulation, have been shown to prevent stress-induced impairments of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory in rats. The present study investigated the role of intrinsic amygdalar neurons in mediating stress effects on the(More)
Among the various phenotypes seen in Down syndrome (DS), mental retardation is the most common and most debilitating condition suffered by individuals with DS. The DYRK1A gene on human chromosome 21q22.2 encodes a subfamily of protein kinases that displays dual substrate specificities and is known to play a critical role in neurodevelopment. To study DS(More)
A substantial number of studies on basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons (BFCN) have provided compelling evidence for their role in the etiology of stress, cognitive aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neurodegenerative diseases. BFCN project to a broad range of cortical sites and limbic structures, including the hippocampus, and are involved in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Vascular pathology and Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology have been shown to coexist in the brains of dementia patients. We investigated how cognitive impairment could be exacerbated in a rat model of combined injury through the interaction of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and amyloid beta (Aβ) toxicity. METHODS In Wistar rats,(More)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been proposed as a therapeutics to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study shows that the peripheral administration of dexibuprofen (S(+)-isomer ibuprofen), which causes less gastric damage and has better anti-inflammatory effects than ibuprofen, reduces the microglial activation in(More)
Previous studies have shown that hederacolchiside-E from Pulsatilla koreana has neuroprotective effects and cognition-enhancing effects. Subsequently, in the current study, we demonstrate that oral administrations of oleanolic-glycoside saponins enriched fraction from P. koreana, designated as SK-PC-B70M, improve impairments in memory consolidation and(More)
Many patients with diabetes are at increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is a vascular risk factor that may increase the risk of dementia through its associations with vascular dementia. We tested whether cognitive impairment could be exacerbated in combined injury using a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion with(More)