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Plasticity of the nervous system is dependent on mechanisms that regulate the strength of synaptic transmission. Excitatory synapses in the brain undergo long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), cellular models of learning and memory. Protein phosphorylation is required for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity, including(More)
Electrolytic lesions to the amygdala, a limbic structure implicated in stress-related behaviors and memory modulation, have been shown to prevent stress-induced impairments of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory in rats. The present study investigated the role of intrinsic amygdalar neurons in mediating stress effects on the(More)
Long-term depression (LTD) in sensory cortices depends on the activation of NMDA receptors. Here, we report that in visual cortical slices, the induction of LTD (but not long-term potentiation) also requires the activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. Using immunolesions in combination with agonists and antagonists, we(More)
In the fear conditioning literature, it is generally hypothesized that neurons in the basolateral amygdalar complex (BLA) (lateral and basal nuclei) support the formation of conditioned fear memory and project to neurons in the central nucleus (CeA) for the expression of conditioned fear responses. According to this serial processing-transmission view,(More)
Among the various phenotypes seen in Down syndrome (DS), mental retardation is the most common and most debilitating condition suffered by individuals with DS. The DYRK1A gene on human chromosome 21q22.2 encodes a subfamily of protein kinases that displays dual substrate specificities and is known to play a critical role in neurodevelopment. To study DS(More)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been proposed as a therapeutics to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study shows that the peripheral administration of dexibuprofen (S(+)-isomer ibuprofen), which causes less gastric damage and has better anti-inflammatory effects than ibuprofen, reduces the microglial activation in(More)
Previous studies have shown that hederacolchiside-E from Pulsatilla koreana has neuroprotective effects and cognition-enhancing effects. Subsequently, in the current study, we demonstrate that oral administrations of oleanolic-glycoside saponins enriched fraction from P. koreana, designated as SK-PC-B70M, improve impairments in memory consolidation and(More)
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of dementia caused by cerebrovascular disease. Several recent reports demonstrated that cholinergic deficits are implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD and that cholinergic therapies have shown improvement of cognitive function in patients with VaD. However, the precise mechanisms by which donepezil(More)
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is characterized by the presence of activated microglia. We investigated whether chronic neuroinflammation affects the induction of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and NMDAR-independent LTP which is expressed by(More)
In the current investigation, the status of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic pathway and hippocampal mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was examined in male Wistar rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which showed cognitive deficits based on assessment on a version of the Morris water maze. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was induced by(More)