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Although schizophrenia is characterized by gray matter (GM) abnormalities, particularly in the prefrontal and temporal cortices, it is unclear whether cerebral cortical GM is abnormal in individuals at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis. We addressed this issue by studying cortical thickness in this group with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We measured(More)
BACKGROUND Selective attention involves a dynamic interaction between attentional control systems and brain oscillations. In auditory processing, selective attention toward task-relevant stimuli and the inhibition of irrelevant information can be considered as aspects of top-down attentional control. Oscillatory rhythms in the alpha band have been found to(More)
CONTEXT Several studies have indicated that atypical antipsychotics (AAP) induce obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Research exploring the mechanism of this phenomenon, however, has been extremely limited. Considering the indirect evidence of genetic control and difficulties in developing animal models and performing gene expression studies, genetic(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis have self-disturbances and deficits in social cognition and functioning. Midline default network areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, are implicated in self-referential and social cognitive tasks. Thus, the neural substrates within the default mode network(More)
To examine regional abnormalities in the brains of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), we assessed the gray matter (GM) density using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We compared magnetic resonance images (MRIs) acquired from 71 OCD patients and 71 age- and gender-matched normal controls and examined the relationship between GM density and(More)
OBJECTIVE Neuroimaging studies in subjects at genetic high risk (GHR) of schizophrenia can provide clues to the causes for the development of schizophrenia. Little is known about genetic influence on functional connectivity status, although studies on schizophrenia have reported an abnormal default mode network (DMN). We sought to identify putative genetic(More)
Spatial working memory (WM) processing has 3 distinct phases: encoding, maintenance, and retrieval and its dysfunction is a core feature in schizophrenia. We examined phase-specific brain activations associated with spatial WM in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia (genetic high risk, GHR), ultra-high risk (UHR) subjects, patients with schizophrenia,(More)
OBJECTIVE Although recent studies have revealed regional cortical thinning in patients with schizophrenia, it is not clear whether cortical thinning reflects a genetic liability for schizophrenia. The present study investigated the change of cortical thickness in subjects at genetic high risk (GHR) for schizophrenia with a relatively high genetic loading(More)
To investigate white matter abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and to clarify the relationship between discrete white matter alterations and obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions, the fractional anisotropy obtained from 25 male patients and 25 matched normal controls were analyzed. The patients had a significantly lower(More)
OBJECTIVE Functional imaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have reported altered fronto-striatal activity during executive tasks. Additionally, altered connectivity of these regions during resting state was found. However, the relationship between brain activity during tasks and resting state remains poorly understood. The present study(More)