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T-type calcium channels have been implicated as a pacemaker for brain rhythms during sleep but their contribution to behavioral states of sleep has been relatively uncertain. Here, we found that mice lacking alpha1(G) T-type Ca(2+) channels showed a loss of the thalamic delta (1-4 Hz) waves and a reduction of sleep spindles (7-14 Hz), whereas slow (<1 Hz)(More)
— Current power saving mechanisms in the IEEE 802.16e standard are not designed to take into account silent periods in VoIP traffic. Therefore, we propose a hybrid power saving mechanism (HPSM) suitable for VoIP services with silence suppression, which basically follows the power saving class (PSC) II during talk-spurt periods, but uses the mechanism of PSC(More)
Thalamocortical neurons in mammals fire action potentials in two different modes, burst or tonic, depending on the cellular state. The burst firing is driven by the low threshold Ca2+ spike that is generated by Ca2+ influx through T-type Ca2+ channels, and has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of absence epilepsy and the regulation of sleep rhythms.(More)
Low-voltage-activated calcium channels, also known as T-type calcium channels, are widely expressed in various types of neurons. In contrast to high-voltage-activated calcium channels which can be activated by a strong depolarization of membrane potential, T-type channels can be activated by a weak depolarization near the resting membrane potential once(More)
Absence seizures are characterized by cortical spike-wave discharges (SWDs) on electroencephalography, often accompanied by a shift in the firing pattern of thalamocortical (TC) neurons from tonic to burst firing driven by T-type Ca(2+) currents. We recently demonstrated that the phospholipase C beta4 (PLCbeta4) pathway tunes the firing mode of TC neurons(More)
T-type Ca(2+) channels in thalamocortical (TC) neurons have long been considered to play a critical role in the genesis of sleep spindles, one of several TC oscillations. A classical model for TC oscillations states that reciprocal interaction between synaptically connected GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons and glutamatergic TC neurons(More)
—While the legacy power-saving mechanism in wireless networks usually uses a predetermined and fixed sleep interval to enhance the energy conservation of mobile stations, the IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX system adopts a power-saving mechanism with a binary truncated exponent (BTE) algorithm for determining sleep intervals. Although the BTE algorithm allows(More)
— In this letter, a new energy-efficient medium access control (MAC) protocol applicable to IEEE 802.11 is suggested. The proposed adaptive beacon listening (ABL) protocol dynamically determines the beacon listening interval (BLI) of mobile station based on the pdf of the estimated round-trip time (RTT). Theoretical and simulation results for power(More)