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Broad-band analog and digital reflection-type phase shifters (RTPSs), showing constant phase shift over 1:3 bandwidth, have been developed using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Two-unit RTPSs centered at two different frequencies have been cascaded to achieve flat phase responses over a wide frequency band. Each phase shifter uses air-gap(More)
We developed a small-sized micromachined probe for the measurement of biological properties using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. We also experimentally showed the suitability of the micromachined probe for biological applications through in vivo, as well as in vitro measurements of various types of tissue. We measured the permittivities(More)
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