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We developed an alternative computer interface using surface electromyography (sEMG) for individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) to access a computer. We designed this interface to make a cursor move on a two-dimensional screen and to click using only three muscles: the extensor carpi radialis (R-ECR) and extensor carpi ulnaris (R-ECU) of the right(More)
The extent to which the addition of haptic communication between human users in a shared virtual environment (SVE) contributes to the shared experience of the users has not received much attention in the literature. In this paper we describe a demonstration of and an experimental study on haptic interaction between two users over a network of significant(More)
In this paper, we present computationally efficient algorithms for the real time simulation of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) procedures. To develop a surgical simulator for training medical personnel, due to high computational speed required for realistic simulation in real time, there is a fundamental trade-off between realism and processing speed of(More)
Soft tissue characterization and modeling based on living tissues has been investigated in order to provide a more realistic behavior in a virtual reality based surgical simulation. In this paper, we characterize the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of intra-abdominal organs using the data from in vivo animal experiments and inverse FE parameter estimation(More)
BACKGROUND Real-time simulation of organ deformation is one of the biggest challenges in virtual surgery, due to the conflicting requirements of real-time interactivity and simulation realism. In this paper we propose a method to overcome this challenge by introducing a multi-resolution modelling technique. METHODS In our approach a reasonably coarse(More)
This paper describes a noninvasive electromyography (EMG) signal-based computer interface and a performance evaluation method based on Fitts' law. The EMG signals induced by volitional wrist movements were acquired from four sites in the lower arm to extract users' intentions, and six classes of wrist movements were distinguished using an artificial neural(More)
For realistic surgical simulation in a virtual environment, in vivo material properties of biological tissues are required for simulating the deformations and the reaction forces from the tool-tissue interactions. In this paper, the in vivo static and dynamic mechanical behavior of the liver and lower esophagus of pigs were presented both in linear and(More)
The lack of data on in vivo material properties of soft tissues is one of the impediments in the development of realistic surgical simulators. The measurement of these properties is not a trivial task, due to the difficulty of the testing itself and the complexity of tissue mechanical behavior. We have developed a system for measuring the mechanical(More)
Soft tissue characterization with the inverse finite element method (FEM) optimization algorithm plays an important role in developing a physical model for medical simulations. However, tissue characterization that takes into account comprehensive boundary conditions for large deformations remains a challenge due to computational complexities and a lack of(More)