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To verify the usefulness of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography (FT) compared with routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with cervical spinal cord injury, and to clarify the relationship between motor and sensory impairments and DTI and FT parameters, we performed routine MRI and DTI on 10 patients with chronic cervical(More)
Dorsal root (DR) axons regenerate in the PNS but turn around or stop at the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the entrance into the CNS. Earlier studies that relied on conventional tracing techniques or postmortem analyses attributed the regeneration failure to growth inhibitors and lack of intrinsic growth potential. Here, we report the first in vivo imaging(More)
The viral vector-mediated overexpression of the defined transcription factors, Brn4/Pou3f4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (BSKM), could induce the direct conversion of somatic fibroblasts into induced neural stem cells (iNSCs). However, viral vectors may be randomly integrated into the host genome thereby increasing the risk for undesired genotoxicity, mutagenesis,(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the major disabilities dealt with in clinical rehabilitation settings and is multifactorial in that the patients suffer from motor and sensory impairments as well as many other complications throughout their lifetimes. Many clinical trials have been documented during the last two decades to restore damaged spinal cords.(More)
The choice of biomaterials available for regenerative medicine continues to grow rapidly, with new materials often claiming advantages over the short-comings of those already in existence. Going back to nature, collagen is one of the most abundant proteins in mammals and its role is essential to our way of life. It can therefore be obtained from many(More)
STUDY DESIGN Prospective case-control study of multifidus muscle atrophy in 39 patients with unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy and lumbosacral disc herniation and 20 controls. OBJECTIVE To evaluate quantitatively the asymmetry of multifidus muscles in unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy with disc herniation (herniated intervertebral disc; HIVD) by(More)
PURPOSE Three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS) is an objective diagnostic test for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The diagnostic importance of an increased uptake on the delayed phase has been proven in early CRPS, but that of the vascular and blood pool phases has not. The purpose of this study is to improve the diagnostic strength of the very acute(More)
Microparticulates are an effective three-dimensional (3D) matrix for the culture of stem cells to be used in tissue engineering of bone. Herein, bioactive calcium phosphate microparticles with an evacuated morphology were prepared, and their potential to support stem cells for bone tissue engineering was addressed. Spherical particles with sizes of hundreds(More)
Three-dimensional gel matrices provide specialized microenvironments that mimic native tissues and enable stem cells to grow and differentiate into specific cell types. Here, we show that collagen three-dimensional gel matrices prepared in combination with adhesive proteins, such as fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN), provide significant cues to the(More)
A reliable source of osteogenic cells is an essential factor for bone tissue engineering. In this study, human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) without an embryoid body step were cultured in macrochanneled poly(caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds prepared using a robotic dispensing technique, after which osteogenesis was promoted by the addition of(More)