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Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and acyl-CoA oxidases are two closely related FAD-containing enzyme families that are present in mitochondria and peroxisomes, respectively. They catalyze the dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA thioesters to the corresponding trans-2-enoyl-CoA. This review examines the structure of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, as a representative of(More)
NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) catalyzes the transfer of electrons to all known microsomal cytochromes P450. A CYPOR variant, with a 4-amino acid deletion in the hinge connecting the FMN domain to the rest of the protein, has been crystallized in three remarkably extended conformations. The variant donates an electron to cytochrome P450 at the(More)
The biological effects of the ISG15 protein arise in part from its conjugation to cellular targets as a primary response to interferon-alpha/beta induction and other markers of viral or parasitic infection. Recombinant full-length ISG15 has been produced for the first time in high yield by mutating Cys78 to stabilize the protein and by cloning in a(More)
Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is a member of the family of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs). Unlike the other ACADs, which are soluble homotetramers, VLCAD is a homodimer associated with the mitochondrial membrane. VLCAD also possesses an additional 180 residues in the C terminus that are not present in the other ACADs. We have determined(More)
The two members of the P-type lectin family, the 46 kDa cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR) and the 300 kDa cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR), are ubiquitously expressed throughout the animal kingdom and are distinguished from all other lectins by their ability to recognize phosphorylated mannose residues. The(More)
NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is essential for electron donation to microsomal cytochrome P450-mediated monooxygenation in such diverse physiological processes as drug metabolism (approximately 85-90% of therapeutic drugs), steroid biosynthesis, and bioactive metabolite production (vitamin D and retinoic acid metabolites). Expressed by a(More)
The crystal structure of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CYPOR) implies that a large domain movement is essential for electron transfer from NADPH via FAD and FMN to its redox partners. To test this hypothesis, a disulfide bond was engineered between residues Asp(147) and Arg(514) in the FMN and FAD domains, respectively. The cross-linked form of this(More)
NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two members of the diflavin oxidoreductase family, are multi-domain enzymes containing distinct FAD and FMN domains connected by a flexible hinge. FAD accepts a hydride ion from NADPH, and reduced FAD donates electrons to FMN, which in turn transfers electrons to the heme center(More)
Nitric-oxide synthases (NOSs) catalyze the conversion of l-arginine to nitric oxide and citrulline. There are three NOS isozymes, each with a different physiological role: neuronal NOS, endothelial NOS, and inducible NOS (iNOS). NOSs consist of an N-terminal oxygenase domain and a C-terminal reductase domain, linked by a calmodulin (CaM)-binding region. CaM(More)
Recent advances in the structural biology of the enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation have revealed their catalytic mechanisms and modes of substrate binding. Although these enzymes all use coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters as substrates, they share no common polypeptide folding topology or CoA-binding motif. Each family adopts an entirely unique protein(More)