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Botulinum neurotoxin causes rapid flaccid paralysis through the inhibition of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. The seven BoNT serotypes (A-G) have been proposed to bind motor neurons via ganglioside-protein dual receptors. To date, the structure-function properties of BoNT/F host receptor interactions have not been resolved. Here, we(More)
Botulinum Neurotoxins (BoNTs) are organized into seven serotypes, A-G. Although several BoNT serotypes enter neurons through synaptic vesicle cycling utilizing dual receptors (a ganglioside and a synaptic vesicle-associated protein), the entry pathway of BoNT/D is less well understood. Although BoNT/D entry is ganglioside-dependent, alignment and structural(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are zinc proteases that cleave SNARE proteins to elicit flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter-carrying vesicle fusion to the plasma membrane of peripheral neurons. Unlike other zinc proteases, BoNTs recognize extended regions of SNAP25 for cleavage; however, the molecular basis for this extended substrate recognition(More)
Recently, a novel learning algorithm called extreme learning machine (ELM) was proposed for efficiently training single-hidden-layer feedforward neural networks (SLFNs). It was much faster than the traditional gradient-descent-based learning algorithms due to the analytical determination of output weights with the random choice of input weights and hidden(More)
Targeting of newly synthesized lysosomal hydrolases to the lysosome is mediated by the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR) and the insulin-like growth factor II/cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (IGF-II/CI-MPR). The two receptors, which share sequence similarities, constitute the P-type family of animal lectins. We now(More)
DNA microarray is a multiplex technology used in molecular biology and biomedicine. It consists of an arrayed series of thousands of microscopic spots of DNA oligonucleotides, called features, of which the result should be analyzed by computational methods. Analyzing microarray data using intelligent computing methods has attracted many researchers in(More)
To contribute to the study of the genetic variability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) we have determined the nucleotide sequence of the E2/NS1 and NS3/NS4 regions of a French isolate using the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison of these nucleotide sequences with those available for American and Japanese isolates showed a significant genetic variability: 5 to(More)