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RNA-guided endonucleases (RGENs), derived from the prokaryotic Type II CRISPR-Cas system, enable targeted genome modification in cells and organisms. Here we describe the establishment of gene-knockout mice and zebrafish by the injection of RGENs as Cas9 protein:guide RNA complexes or Cas9 mRNA plus guide RNA into one-cell-stage embryos of both species.(More)
The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is an important transcription factor necessary for initiating and sustaining inflammatory and immune reactions. The inducers of NF-kappaB are well characterized, but the molecular mechanisms underlying multiple in vivo NF-kappaB activation processes are poorly understood. The injection of lipopolysaccharide resulted in(More)
In this study, we investigated the molecular events involved in estrogen-induced angiogenesis. Treatment of the human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, HEC-1A, with estrogen up-regulated mRNA expression and protein synthesis of various angiogenic factors such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, and vascular(More)
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) augments angiogenesis by promoting the synthesis of various angiogenic factors, via the activation of NF-kappaB. In this study, we investigated the role of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, in PAF-induced angiogenesis. PAF increased mRNA expression, protein synthesis, and MMP-9 activity in ECV304 cells, in a(More)
OBJECTIVE It has been shown that Mindbomb (Mib), an E3 Ubiquitin ligase, is an essential modulator of Notch signaling during development. However, its effects on vascular development remain largely unknown. APPROACHES AND RESULTS We identified a number of novel proteins that physically interact with Mib, including the Factor Inhibiting Hypoxia Inducible(More)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is an acute viral respiratory illness with high mortality caused by a new strain of betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since the report of the first patient in Saudi Arabia in 2012, large-scale outbreaks through hospital-acquired infection and inter-hospital transmission have been reported. Most of the patients reported in(More)
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) augments angiogenesis by promoting the synthesis of a variety of angiogenic factors, via the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. Recently, we reported that PAF upregulates MMP-9 expression in a NF-kappaB-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in PAF-induced MMP-9 expression in(More)
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening systemic allergic reaction with the potential for a recurrent or biphasic pattern. Despite an incidence of biphasic reaction between 5 and 20%, the molecular mechanism for the reaction is unknown. Using a murine model of penicillin V-induced systemic anaphylaxis, we show an autoregulatory cascade of biphasic anaphylactic(More)
Angiogenesis plays an important role in vertebrate development and tumor growth. In this process, gicerin, which is known as a kind of cell adhesion molecule, has recently been reported to play an important role but its in vivo function is still unclear in developing vasculature. To address this issue, we used gain-of-function and loss-of-function analyses(More)
During skeletal development, both osteogenic and chondrogenic programs are initiated from multipotent mesenchymal cells, requiring a number of signaling molecules, transcription factors, and downstream effectors to orchestrate the sophisticated process. Col10a1, an important downstream effector gene, has been identified as a marker for maturing chondrocytes(More)