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Here we demonstrate that the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) promotes robust regeneration of peripheral axons after nerve injury in mice. Peripheral axon regeneration is accelerated by prior injury; however, DLK KO neurons do not respond to a preconditioning lesion with enhanced regeneration in vivo or in vitro. Assays for activation of transcription(More)
Axons actively self-destruct following genetic, mechanical, metabolic, and toxic insults, but the mechanism of axonal degeneration is poorly understood. The JNK pathway promotes axonal degeneration shortly after axonal injury, hours before irreversible axon fragmentation ensues. Inhibition of JNK activity during this period delays axonal degeneration, but(More)
Individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) develop abnormalities of both neuronal and glial cell lineages, suggesting that the NF1 protein neurofibromin is an essential regulator of neuroglial progenitor function. In this regard, Nf1-deficient embryonic telencephalic neurospheres exhibit increased self-renewal and prolonged survival as explants in(More)
Peripheral axons can re-extend robustly after nerve injury. Soon after a nerve crush regenerating axons grow through the nerve segment distal to the lesion in close proximity to distal axons that are still morphologically and molecularly preserved. Hence, following the progress of regenerating axons necessitates markers that can distinguish between(More)
CONCLUSION Vestibular abnormality was found in 84% of patients with Meniere's disease (MD) and 66% of those with migrainous vertigo (MV), even in the interictal period. Although MV does not have proven pathology like endolymphatic hydrops of MD, MV had high vestibular abnormality, suggesting that comorbid vestibular abnormality can be a cause of vertigo and(More)
Axons often form synaptic contacts with multiple targets by extending branches along different paths. PHR (Pam/Highwire/RPM-1) family ubiquitin ligases are important regulators of axon development, with roles in axon outgrowth, target selection, and synapse formation. Here we report the function of Highwire, the Drosophila member of the PHR family, in(More)
Although biphasic head-shaking nystagmus (HSN) is a basic response to head shaking in patients with unilateral vestibular loss, monophasic HSN is commonly seen in patients with dizziness of undetermined etiology. Since the clinical significance of HSN remains unclear, we sought to characterize different types of HSN in patients with vestibular neuritis (VN)(More)
OBJECTIVE To better characterize both ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) responses at different frequencies of sound in 20 normal subjects. METHODS Cervical and ocular VEMPs were recorded. The intensities of sound stimulation decreased from the maximal intensity, until no responses were evoked. Thresholds, amplitudes,(More)
OBJECTIVES Air caloric results are supposed to be influenced by anatomic changes of the middle ear. The aims of our study were to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of abnormal air caloric results in patients with unilateral chronic otitis media and without any history of vertigo, and to compare caloric results with there of other vestibular(More)
Injured peripheral neurons successfully activate a proregenerative transcriptional program to enable axon regeneration and functional recovery. How transcriptional regulators coordinate the expression of such program remains unclear. Here we show that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) controls multiple injury-induced genes in sensory neurons and(More)