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HuC encodes an RNA binding protein homologous to Drosophila elav that serves as an excellent early marker for differentiating neurons. We have characterized the promoter of the zebrafish HuC gene by examining the ability of 5'-upstream fragments to drive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in live embryos. We determined that 2.8 kb of the(More)
Here we demonstrate that the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) promotes robust regeneration of peripheral axons after nerve injury in mice. Peripheral axon regeneration is accelerated by prior injury; however, DLK KO neurons do not respond to a preconditioning lesion with enhanced regeneration in vivo or in vitro. Assays for activation of transcription(More)
Axons actively self-destruct following genetic, mechanical, metabolic, and toxic insults, but the mechanism of axonal degeneration is poorly understood. The JNK pathway promotes axonal degeneration shortly after axonal injury, hours before irreversible axon fragmentation ensues. Inhibition of JNK activity during this period delays axonal degeneration, but(More)
Peripheral axons can re-extend robustly after nerve injury. Soon after a nerve crush regenerating axons grow through the nerve segment distal to the lesion in close proximity to distal axons that are still morphologically and molecularly preserved. Hence, following the progress of regenerating axons necessitates markers that can distinguish between(More)
Axons often form synaptic contacts with multiple targets by extending branches along different paths. PHR (Pam/Highwire/RPM-1) family ubiquitin ligases are important regulators of axon development, with roles in axon outgrowth, target selection, and synapse formation. Here we report the function of Highwire, the Drosophila member of the PHR family, in(More)
Asiaticoside (AS) derivatives were tested for potential protective effects against Abeta-induced cell death. Of the 28 AS derivatives tested, asiatic acid (AA), asiaticoside 6 (AS6), and SM2 showed strong inhibition of Abeta-induced death of B103 cells at 1 microM. The three AS derivatives were further tested for their effects on free radical injury and(More)
OBJECTIVE To better characterize both ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) responses at different frequencies of sound in 20 normal subjects. METHODS Cervical and ocular VEMPs were recorded. The intensities of sound stimulation decreased from the maximal intensity, until no responses were evoked. Thresholds, amplitudes,(More)
OBJECTIVES Air caloric results are supposed to be influenced by anatomic changes of the middle ear. The aims of our study were to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of abnormal air caloric results in patients with unilateral chronic otitis media and without any history of vertigo, and to compare caloric results with there of other vestibular(More)
Though benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common vestibular disorder causing positional vertigo, patients with typical positional vertigo in which the findings of positional nystagmus do not meet the diagnostic criteria for BPPV are often encountered in the clinic. Recently a concept of the light cupula was introduced, which accounts(More)
Injured peripheral neurons successfully activate a proregenerative transcriptional program to enable axon regeneration and functional recovery. How transcriptional regulators coordinate the expression of such program remains unclear. Here we show that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) controls multiple injury-induced genes in sensory neurons and(More)