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PURPOSE Microglia in the central nervous system display a marked structural dynamism in their processes in the resting state. This dynamic behavior, which may play a constitutive surveying role in the uninjured neural parenchyma, is also highly responsive to tissue injury. The role of CX3CR1, a chemokine receptor expressed in microglia, in regulating(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammatory mechanisms may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Agonists of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), such as rosiglitazone, have been recently demonstrated to regulate inflammation by modulating the production of inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules. The purpose(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme involved in energy homeostasis, regulates inflammatory responses, but its precise mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent evidence has shown that resveratrol (RES), an AMPK activator, reduces prostaglandin E(2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated microglia. Here, we examined the effect of RES on(More)
Growing evidence suggests an elevated risk for colorectal neoplasia among individuals with low levels of vitamin D, the biological actions of which are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). To investigate the association among vitamin D status, VDR polymorphisms (FokI, and BsmI), and colorectal adenoma, we conducted a meta-analysis of nine studies of(More)
PURPOSE Retinal microglia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various retinal diseases, but their basic function and cellular phenotype remain incompletely understood. Here, the authors used a novel ex vivo retinal imaging preparation to examine the behavioral phenotype of living retinal microglia in intact tissue and in response to injury. (More)
It has been suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and microalbuminuria in a cross-sectional community-based study. We measured peripheral blood mtDNA copy number in 694 adults without(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to compare rescuer fatigue and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality between standard 30:2 CPR (ST-CPR) and chest compression only CPR (CO-CPR) performed for 8 minutes on a realistic manikin by following the 2010 CPR guidelines. METHODS All 36 volunteers (laypersons; 18 men and 18 women) were randomized to ST-CPR or CO-CPR at(More)
Few prospective studies have examined the associations between blood levels of folate, in conjunction with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer. We evaluated the associations between plasma folate, MTHFR C677T, and A1298C, and colorectal cancer in three large prospective studies: the Nurses’ Health Study, the(More)
BACKGROUND Hyperglycemia leads to cardiac oxidative stress and an imbalance in glucose homeostasis. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterised by cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on cardiac energy(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important causative agent of cervical cancers worldwide. However, our understanding of how the vaginal microbiota might be associated with HPV infection is limited. In addition, the influence of human genetic and physiological factors on the vaginal microbiota is unclear. Studies on twins and their families provide the(More)