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It is well-known that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) participates in cellular responses to mitogenic stimuli, environmental and genotoxic stresses, and apoptotic agents. Although there are several reports on p38MAPK in relation to cell growth and apoptosis, the exact mechanism of p38MAPK-mediated cell growth regulation remains obscure. Here,(More)
We previously demonstrated that the phytosphingosine-induced apoptosis was accompanied by the concomitant induction of both the caspase-8-mediated and mitochondrial activation-mediated apoptosis pathways. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the activation of these two distinct cell death pathways(More)
Although production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by oncogenic Ras is thought to be crucial for Ras transformation, very little is known about the signaling mechanism involved. In the present study, we investigated whether BLT2, a low-affinity leukotriene B(4) receptor, is involved in the generation of ROS in H-Ras(V12)-transformed fibroblasts. We show(More)
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is an inflammatory mediator with potent biological activities in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we found that expression of BLT2, a low-affinity LTB4 receptor, is significantly upregulated in breast cancer cells. In addition, we observed that inhibition of BLT2 by a specific antagonist, LY255283,(More)
Inflammation and inflammatory mediators are inextricably linked with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through complex pathways in the tumor microenvironment. However, the mechanism by which inflammatory mediators, such as the lipid inflammatory mediators, eicosanoids, contribute to EMT is largely unknown. In the present study we observed that BLT2,(More)
BACKGROUND The elevated production of interleukin (IL)-8 is critically associated with invasiveness and metastatic potential in breast cancer cells. However, the intracellular signaling pathway responsible for up-regulation of IL-8 production in breast cancer cells has remained unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this study, we report that the(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important regulatory molecules implicated in the signaling cascade triggered by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, although the events through which TNFalpha induces ROS generation are not well characterized. Here, we report that TNFalpha-induced ROS production was blocked by pretreatment with internalization inhibitor(More)
The use of chemical modifiers as radiosensitizers in combination with low-dose irradiation may increase the therapeutic effect on cancer by overcoming a high apoptotic threshold. Here, we showed that phytosphingosine treatment in combination with gamma-radiation enhanced apoptotic cell death of radiation-resistant human T-cell lymphoma in a(More)
It has been well known that Ras signaling is involved in various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, distinct cellular functions of Ras isozymes are not fully understood. Here we show the opposing roles of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras genes in the modulation of cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Overexpression of(More)
PURPOSE Sphingolipid metabolites, such as sphingosine and ceramide, are highly bioactive compounds and are involved in diverse cell processes, including cell-cell interaction, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, the physiological roles of phytosphingosine are poorly understood. In this study, we report that phytosphingosine can(More)