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This study investigated the phenomena of finger enslaving, involuntary finger actions by non-intended fingers, and force deficit, smaller maximum force by all four fingers than the sum of individual finger maximum forces in individuals with cervical spinal cord injuries (SCI). A total of 16 subjects participated in this study: 8 with a cervical spinal cord(More)
We studied the finger interactions during maximum voluntary force (MVF) production in flexion and extension in children and adults. The goal of this study was to investigate the age-related changes and flexion-extension differences of MVF and finger interaction indices, such as finger inter-dependency (force enslaving (FE): unintended finger forces produced(More)
Individual digit-tip forces and moments during torque production on a mechanically fixed circular object were studied. During the experiments, subjects positioned each digit on a 6-dimensional force/moment sensor attached to a circular handle and produced a maximum voluntary torque on the handle. The torque direction and the orientation of the torque axis(More)
The purpose of this study was to test the principle of motor abundance, which has been hypothesized as the principle by which the central nervous system controls the excessive degrees of freedom of the human movements, in contrast to the traditional negative view of motor redundancy. This study investigated the changes in force stabilizing and moment(More)
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), are a group of highly glycosylated proteins that are found throughout the plant kingdom. To date, glycosyltransferases that glycosylate AGP backbone have remained largely unknown. In this study, a gene (GhGalT1) encoding a putative β-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalT) was identified in cotton. GhGalT1, belonging to CAZy GT31(More)
Distal regulatory elements have been shown to regulate gene transcription through spatial interactions, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are linked with distal gene expression by spatial proximity, which helps to explain the causal role of disease-associated SNPs in non-coding region. Therefore, studies on spatial interactions between chromatin(More)
Flowering is one of the important defining features of angiosperms. The initiation of flower development and the formation of different floral organs are the results of the interplays among numerous genes. But until now, just fewer genes have been found linked with flower development. And the functions of lots of genes of Arabidopsis thaliana are still(More)
In an environment of high foreclosure rates and distressed housing markets, federal policies are focusing on loan modifi cations to help delinquent homeowners pay their mortgages. While it is too soon to assess the effectiveness of these modifi cations, policymakers considering future refi nements may gain insight from a more established, state-level(More)
3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The(More)
The secondary cell wall in mature cotton fibers contains over 90% cellulose with low quantities of xylan and lignin. However, little is known regarding the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis in cotton fibers. In this study, we characterized an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GhMYB7, in cotton. GhMYB7 is expressed at a high level in developing(More)