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As a result of global warming, precipitation is likely to increase in high latitudes and the tropics and to decrease in already dry subtropical regions. The absolute magnitude and regional details of such changes, however, remain intensely debated. As is well known from El Niño studies, sea-surface-temperature gradients across the tropical Pacific Ocean can(More)
Monsoon rainfall and tropical storms (TSs) impose great impacts on society, yet their seasonal predictions are far from successful. The western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) is a prime circulation system affecting East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and western North Pacific TS activities, but the sources of its variability and predictability have not been(More)
The reproducibility of boreal summer intra-seasonal variability (ISV) and its interannual variation by dynamical models are assessed through diagnosing 21-year retrospective forecasts from ten state-of-the-art ocean– atmosphere coupled prediction models. To facilitate the assessment, we have defined the strength of ISV activity by the standard deviation of(More)
25 The skills of 11 coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (CGCMs) are 26 investigated in the prediction of seasonal rainfall and circulation anomalies over the Northwest 27 (NW) Pacific for the period 1980-2001, with a focus on the summer following the mature phase 28 of El Niño [hereafter JJA(1)]. It is shown that the first empirical(More)
Predictability of summer climate anomalies over East Asia and the northwestern Pacific is investigated using observations and a multimodel hindcast ensemble initialized on 1 May for the recent 20–30 yr. Summertime East Asia is under the influence of the northwestern Pacific subtropical high (PASH). The Pacific–Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern, a meridional(More)
The warm-temperate regions of the globe characterized by dry summers and wet winters (Mediterranean climate; MED) are especially vulnerable to climate change. The potential impact on water resources, ecosystems and human livelihood requires a detailed picture of the future changes in this unique climate zone. Here we apply a probabilistic approach to(More)
We examine the structural and electronic properties of LaNiO 3 and NdNiO 3 epitaxial thin films grown on cubic (001) SrTiO 3 from the viewpoint of bulk crystal symmetry and misfit strain. X-ray scattering and polarization-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements are performed to determine the crystal symmetry and extract the local Ni 3d orbital(More)
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