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Various lines of evidence indicate the presence of progressive pathophysiological processes occurring within the brains of patients with schizophrenia. By modulating chemical neurotransmission, antipsychotic drugs may influence a variety of functions regulating neuronal resilience and viability and have the potential for neuroprotection. This article(More)
Bioluminescent flashing is essential for firefly reproduction, yet the specific molecular mechanisms that control light production are not well understood. We report that light production by fireflies can be stimulated by nitric oxide (NO) gas in the presence of oxygen and that NO scavengers block bioluminescence induced by the neurotransmitter octopamine.(More)
We studied two related infants with a fatal mitochondrial disease, affecting muscle in one and liver in the other. Quantitative analysis revealed a severe depletion of mtDNA in affected tissues. This genetic abnormality was also observed in muscle of an unrelated infant with myopathy and in muscle and kidney of a fourth child with myopathy and nephropathy.(More)
Using rat liver mitochondria we determined that the primary biochemical target for inhibition of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by rhodamine 123 (Rh123) was FoF1-ATPase and that the amount of Rh123 associated with mitochondria is proportional to the mitochondrial membrane potential. Inhibition of coupled respiration by Rh123 in mitochondria isolated(More)
Unidirectional transport (influx and efflux) of adenine nucleotides in rat liver mitochondria was examined using carboxyatractyloside to inhibit rapid exchange of matrix and external adenine nucleotides via the adenine nucleotide translocase. Influx of adenine nucleotides was concentration-dependent. ATP was the preferred substrate with a Km of 2.67 mM and(More)
A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method is described that detects even single base pair changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In this method, restriction fragments of mtDNA are electrophoresed in a urea/formamide gradient gel at 60 degrees C. Migration distance of each mtDNA fragment in the gel depends on melting behavior which reflects base(More)
In adult rats, mannoheptulose injection causes a transient decrease in the serum insulin-to-glucagon ratio and a concomitant increase in serum glucose concentration. These effects attain a maximum 1 h after the injection and then decline toward normal. Correlated with the hormone changes is a dramatic increase in the adenine nucleotide content (ATP + ADP +(More)
Traditional chemotherapies, aimed at DNA replication in rapidly dividing cells, have achieved only limited success in the treatment of carcinomas due largely to their lack of specificity for cells of tumorigenic origin. It is important, therefore, to investigate treatment strategies aimed at novel cellular targets that are sufficiently different between(More)
This study investigated mitochondrial respiratory activity in Huntington's disease (HD) brain. Mitochondrial membranes from caudate and cortex of HD and non-HD autopsied brains were assayed for succinate oxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity, and cytochromes b, cc1, and aa3. There was a significant decrease in HD caudate mitochondrial respiration,(More)
The effects of dietary mineral levels on caloric intake, nutrient choice, body weight, adipose tissue weight, interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) weight, and thermogenic capacity, and plasma insulin and glucose levels were examined in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiments 1 and 2, rats were fed a purified diet with zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr),(More)