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Determining the source of regenerated luminal epithelial cells in the adult prostate during androgen deprivation and replacement will provide insights into the origin of prostate cancer cells and their fate during androgen deprivation therapy. Prostate stem cells in the epithelial layer have been suggested to give rise to luminal epithelium. However, the(More)
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are a major class of ionotropic glutamate receptors that can undergo activity-dependent changes in surface expression. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a mechanism by which the surface expression of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors is regulated. The C terminus of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B contains the internalization motif YEKL,(More)
The single transmembrane domain serine/threonine kinase activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) has been proposed to bind key regulators of skeletal muscle mass development, including the ligands GDF-8 (myostatin) and GDF-11 (BMP-11). Here we provide a detailed kinetic characterization of ActRIIB binding to several low and high affinity ligands using a soluble(More)
The free radical, or oxidative stress, theory posits that imbalance in cells between prooxidants and antioxidants results in an altered redox state and, over time, an accumulation of oxidative damage. We hypothesized herein that cells with an increasingly prooxidant intracellular environment also might be particularly susceptible to acute oxidative stress.(More)
Androgen deprivation, a consequence of hypogonadism, certain cancer treatments, or normal aging in men, leads to loss of muscle mass, increased adiposity, and osteoporosis. In the present study, using a soluble chimeric form of activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) we sought to offset the adverse effects of androgen deprivation on muscle, adipose tissue, and(More)
Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), an endothelial cell-specific type I receptor of the TGF-β superfamily, is an important regulator of normal blood vessel development as well as pathological tumor angiogenesis. As such, ALK1 is an important therapeutic target. Thus, several ALK1-directed agents are currently in clinical trials as anti-angiogenic cancer(More)
We have shown previously that testosterone concentration in the blood serum of Brown Norway rat becomes reduced with aging, and that this results from reduced testosterone production by individual Leydig cells. Herein we examine the effects of caloric restriction (CR), an intervention shown to delay or inhibit age-associated pathologic and biologic changes(More)
OBJECTIVE The majority of apoptotic cells in atherosclerotic lesions are macrophages. However, the pathogenic role of macrophage apoptosis in the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Elevated expression of Bax, one of the pivotal proapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family, has been found in human atherosclerotic plaques. Activation of Bax also(More)
Previous studies have suggested that oxidant-induced damage may play a role in the reduced ability of aged Brown Norway rat Leydig cells to produce testosterone. We reasoned that if this was the case, antioxidants such as vitamin E (VE) would be expected to have protective effects on steroidogenesis. To test this hypothesis, the effects of VE on Leydig cell(More)
Cells of the vasculature, including macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells, exhibit apoptosis in culture upon treatment with oxidized low density lipoprotein, as do vascular cells of atherosclerotic plaque. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that the apoptotic component of oxidized low density lipoprotein is one or more(More)