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11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD-1) intracellularly regenerates active corticosterone from circulating inert 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC) in specific tissues. The hippocampus is a brain structure particularly vulnerable to glucocorticoid neurotoxicity with aging. In intact hippocampal cells in culture, 11beta-HSD-1 acts as a(More)
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) regenerates active glucocorticoids (GCs) from intrinsically inert 11-keto substrates inside cells, including neurons, thus amplifying steroid action. Excess GC action exerts deleterious effects on the hippocampus and causes impaired spatial memory, a key feature of age-related cognitive dysfunction. Mice(More)
Glucocorticoids are pivotal in the maintenance of memory and cognitive functions as well as other essential physiological processes including energy metabolism, stress responses, and cell proliferation. Normal aging in both rodents and humans is often characterized by elevated glucocorticoid levels that correlate with hippocampus-dependent memory(More)
Local brain amplification of glucocorticoids (GCs) by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) plays a pivotal role in age-related memory deficits. 11β-HSD1 deficient mice are protected from spatial memory impairments with aging, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To determine which brain receptors [high-affinity mineralocorticoid(More)
The mechanisms by which antidepressants regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are still unknown. The ABCB1-type multiple drug resistance (MDR) p-glycoprotein (PGP) regulates the HPA axis by limiting the access of glucocorticoids to the brain in mice and humans. Previous work in cell cultures has found that antidepressants enhance(More)
Hippocampal NGFI-A gene expression is increased following the induction of long-term potentiation, a form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity that has been implicated in learning. In this study, we show a positive correlation between spatial learning and the constitutive expression of NGFI-A mRNA, selectively in CA1 pyramidal neurons. NGFI-A mRNA(More)
Increased neuronal glucocorticoid exposure may underlie interindividual variation in cognitive function with aging in rodents and humans. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) catalyzes the regeneration of active glucocorticoids within cells (in brain and other tissues), thus amplifying steroid action. We examined whether 11beta-HSD1(More)
The brain serotonin (5-HT) system interacts closely with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We examined the effects of stress on hippocampal 5-HT7 receptor and corticosteroid receptor (mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)) mRNA expression measured by in situ hybridisation histochemistry. Acute restraint stress increased(More)
Increasing evidence links chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels and cognitive impairments in a subpopulation of aged rodents and humans. Antidepressant drugs improve hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis feedback regulation and reduce plasma glucocorticoid levels. Decreasing the cumulative lifetime exposure to glucocorticoid excess by long-term exposure(More)
As rats age, a subgroup will show spatial memory impairments, along with decreased corticosteroid receptors (MR and/or GR) in the hippocampus and a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In previous work, we have shown that amitriptyline treatment increases hippocampal MR mRNA and improves spatial memory in young rats but had no effect in aged(More)