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A wide clinical spectrum of renal diseases affects individuals with HIV. These conditions include acute kidney injury, electrolyte and acid-base disturbances, HIV-associated glomerular disease, acute-on-chronic renal disease and adverse side effects related to treatment of HIV. Studies employing varying criteria for diagnosis of kidney disease have reported(More)
AIMS A review of the prevalence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in HIV infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS A review of published literature. RESULTS High risk for development of chronic kidney disease with HIV infection are black race, CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3, HIV RNA levels > 4,000 copies/ml, family history of CKD and presence of(More)
OBJECTIVE There are limited data on symptomatic hyperlactataemia caused by antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. We assessed individuals who developed symptomatic hyperlactataemia on ART in an outpatient clinic in South Africa. DESIGN A retrospective record review was performed on patients attending the clinic from January 2004 to(More)
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is now the third leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans between the ages of 20 and 64 years. Statistics in the United States estimate the incidence of HIVAN to be between 3.5% and 12%. The estimated number of those living with HIV worldwide is 37.4 million, with 26 million in Africa. If the US(More)
Few urinary screening studies have been performed to determine the incidence of urinary abnormalities in antiretroviral therapy-naive, HIV-infected outpatients. From published data, the incidence appears to be high, particularly when compared with populations outside sub-Saharan Africa. In South Africa, urinary screening in antiretroviral therapy clinics is(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the progression of kidney disease in HIV-infected patients in developing countries in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS HIV-infected patients were screened for kidney disease. Kidney biopsies were performed before and after initiation of ART to assess the clinical and histological response to treatment. Data(More)
The number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide was estimated to be 39.5 million in 2006, 2.6 million more than in 2004. The manifestations of HIV infection in the kidney are multiple and varied, highlighting the complexity of the disease process. There is a wide spectrum of renal disease that occurs in the course of HIV(More)
Glomerular injury, occurring either as primary glomerular disease or as part of a systemic disease process, is usually a result of immune-mediated mechanisms. The morphologic reaction pattern has a diverse spectrum of appearance, ranging from normal by light microscopy in minimal change disease to crescentic forms of glomerulonephritis, with conspicuous(More)
To the Editor: In South Africa, an estimated 30% of the cadaveric donor pool is HIV-infected; in consequence, these organs are discarded. An undersupply of donor organs combined with limited resources tends to exclude HIV-positive patients from renal replacement programmes. We evaluated the acceptance of using HIV-positive donor kidneys for transplantation(More)