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Retinal horizontal cells of four rodent species, rat, mouse, gerbil, and guinea pig were examined to determine whether they conform to the basic pattern of two horizontal cell types found in other mammalian orders. Intracellular injections of Lucifer-Yellow were made to reveal the morphologies of individual cells. Immunocytochemistry with antisera against(More)
The neurons in the cortical white matter (WM neurons) originate from the first set of postmitotic neurons that migrates from the ventricular zone. In particular, they arise in the subplate that contains the earliest cells generated in the telencephalon, prior to the appearance of neurons in gray matter cortical layers. These cortical WM neurons are very(More)
In several mammals only one of the two types of retinal horizontal cell, the axonless A-type, appears to express neurofilaments. Neurofilament immunostaining of rodent retinas reveals a horizontal cell plexus that has previously been interpreted as belonging to A-type cells. Our intracellular Lucifer yellow injections strongly suggest that there are no(More)
The mechanism by which dementia occurs in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not known. We assessed changes in hippocampal dendritic spines of APP/PS1 transgenic mice that accumulate amyloid beta throughout the brain. Three-dimensional analysis of 21,507 dendritic spines in the dentate gyrus, a region crucial for learning and memory, revealed a(More)
Certain cognitive functions differ in men and women, although the anatomical and functional substrates underlying these differences remain unknown. Because neocortical activity is directly related with higher brain function, numerous studies have focused on the cerebral cortex when searching for possible structural correlates of cognitive gender(More)
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from impaired memory and emotional disturbances, the pathogenesis of which is not entirely clear. In APP/PS1 transgenic mice, a model of AD in which amyloid beta (Abeta) accumulates in the brain, we have examined neurons in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA), a brain region crucial to establish cued fear(More)
Hippocampal sclerosis is the most frequent pathology encountered in resected mesial temporal structures from patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here, we have used stereological methods to compare the overall density of synapses and neurons between non-sclerotic and sclerotic hippocampal tissue obtained by surgical resection from(More)
Corticothalamic axons have been studied in adult Lister hooded rats with single or dual injections of tracers into the visual cortex. Labelled axons leave medial and lateral injection sites in separate or partially overlapping bundles along parallel trajectories in the subcortical white matter. In the internal capsule they converge and both bundles enter(More)
Cell adhesion molecules and downstream growth factor-dependent signaling are critical for brain development and synaptic plasticity, and they have been linked to cognitive function in adult animals. We have previously developed a mimetic peptide (FGL) from the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) that enhances spatial learning and memory in rats. We have(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) and calcium-binding proteins (CaBP) are important neuromodulators implicated in brain plasticity and brain disease. In addition, the mammalian superior colliculus (SC) has one of the highest concentrations of NO within the brain. The present study was designed to determine the distribution of nitric oxide-synthesizing neurons in the SC of(More)