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Cyprinidae is the biggest family of freshwater fish, but the phylogenetic relationships among its higher-level taxa are not yet fully resolved. In this study, we used the nuclear recombination activating gene 2 and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome b genes to reconstruct cyprinid phylogeny. Our aims were to (i) demonstrate the effects of(More)
Origin and diversification of the Tibetan polyploid cyprinids (schizothoracins) may help us to explore relationships between diversification of the cyprinids and the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Cyprininae phylogeny was analyzed using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to trace origins of polyploidy and diversifications of schizothoracins. Ancestral states(More)
Central Force Optimization (CFO) and Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) have been used in various fields. This article compared CFO and GSA and exhaustively analyzed the difference. Their performance on solving unimodal and multimodal functions is analyzed by a series of test functions. Then, conclusions that characteristics of the two methods are made,(More)
Reliable observation of space reentry vehicles is an issue which is worthy of concerning and discussing undoubtedly. The ballistic missile is a typical space reentry vehicle, and it flights along a destined trajectory with a high speed and may maneuver. The motion of the ballistic mission can be approximated by the interaction of the basic motion models(More)
This paper first introduces the characteristic set of tripartite key agreement protocols. Then the relationship between the characteristic set and the security of a tripartite key agreement protocol is discussed. Because all present tripartite key agreement protocols are insecure, new protocols based on digital certification are proposed. The security and(More)
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