Junaid Israr

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Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the de-facto routing protocol in the Internet. Unfortunately, it is not a secure protocol, and as a result, several attacks have been successfully mounted against the Internet infrastructure. Among the security requirements of BGP is the ability to validate the actual source and path of the BGP update message. This is needed(More)
OBJECTIVE To introduce a simple, self-retentive and cost effective presurgical infant orthopaedic plate with anterior ring to retract and align the grossly protruded and deviated pre-maxilla and to perform the nasoalveolar moulding in order to facilitate initial lip repair. METHOD The study was conducted in the orthodontic department of dental section of(More)
Denial of Service (DoS) attacks present a serious problem for Internet communications. IP source address spoofing is used by DoS and DDoS attacks on targeted victim. IP spoofing to forge the source IP address of the packet, and thereby hide the identity of source. This makes hard to detect and defend against such attack. This paper presents a token based(More)
Credible BGP (C-BGP) is a lightweight alternative to secure BGP. Its main design objective is to address signature verification costs and deployment challenges associated with S-BGP. To this end, C-BGP defines a control layer of trusted ASes that is comprised of major Autonomous Systems (ASes) in the network. In this environment a non-trusted AS has to(More)
Presence of swelling soils under the foundations of civil engineering structures particularly lightly loaded structures has caused serious damages around the globe due to their differential up heaving. In this paper, based on the results of swell tests on bentonite mixed clay, correlations for predicting the swelling parameters (i.e., swell potential and(More)
The Collum angle or the cephalometric crown-root angulation of permanent maxillary central incisors is an angle formed between the long axes of the crown and root of upper central incisors. This study aimed to evaluate the Collum angle in patients with Class II division 1 and 2 malocclusions for identifying the nature of differences, if any. Out of a total(More)
The objective of this study was to compare transverse dimensions of the dental arches and alveolar arches in the canine, premolar and molar regions of Class I and Class II div 1 malocclusion groups. This cross sectional study was performed at Lahore medical and dental college, from January 2011 to November 2011, using measurements on dental casts of 30(More)
A wormhole attack is a specific mechanism where two or more Autonomous Systems (ASes) coordinate to perform a black hole attack by exchanging secure BGP updates over a tunnel, signing route attestations for each other. Routing protocols generally choose route through a wormhole because it is, in general, the shortest route. This attack can redirect traffic(More)
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